|Chapter 1: THE WORD OF GOD
Seventh-day Adventists Believe... The Holy Scriptures, Old and New Testaments, are the
written Word of God, given by divine inspiration through
holy men of God who spoke and wrote as they were moved by
the Holy Spirit. In this Word, God has committed to man the
knowledge necessary for salvation. The Holy Scriptures are
the infallible revelation of His will. They are the standard
of character, the test of experience, the authoritative
revealer of doctrines, and the trustworthy record of God's
acts in history.-- Fundamental Beliefs,1
THE WORD OF GOD
No book has been so loved, so hated, so revered, so
damned as the Bible. People have died for the Bible. Others
have killed for it. It has inspired man's greatest, noblest
acts, and been blamed for his most damnable and degenerate.
Wars have raged over the Bible, revolutions have been
nurtured in its pages, and kingdoms crumbled through its
ideas. People of all viewpoints--from liberation theologians
to capitalists, from fascists to Marxists, from dictators to
liberators, from pacifists to militarists--search its pages
for words with which to justify their deeds.
The Bible's uniqueness does not come from its
unparalleled political, cultural, and social influence, but
from its source and its subject matter. It is God's
revelation of the unique God-man: the Son of God, Jesus
Christ --the Saviour of the world.
While throughout history some have questioned God's
existence, many have confidently testified that He exists
and that He has disclosed Himself. In what ways has God
revealed Himself, and how does the Bible function in His
The insight into God's character that history, human
behavior, conscience, and nature provide is frequently
called "general revelation" because it is available to all
and appeals to reason.
For millions, "The heavens declare the glory of God; and
the firmament shows His handiwork" (Ps. 19:1). The sunshine,
rain, hills, and streams, all testify of a loving Creator.
"For since the creation of the world His invisible
attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things
that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that
they are without excuse" (Rom. 1:20).
Others see evidence of a caring God in the happy
relationships and extraordinary love between friends, family
members, husband and wife, parents and children. "As one
whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you" (Isa.
66:13). "As a father pities his children, so the Lord pities
those who fear Him" (Ps. 103:13).
Yet the same sunshine that testifies of a loving Creator
can turn the earth into a parched desert, bringing
starvation. The same rain can turn into a rush of water that
drowns families; the same lofty hill can crack, crumble--and
then crush. And human relationships often involve jealousy,
envy, anger, and even hatred that leads to murder.
The world around us gives mixed signals, presenting more
questions than it answers. It reveals a conflict between
good and evil, but does not explain how and why the conflict
started, who is fighting, why, or who will ultimately win.
Sin obscures God's self-revelation through creation by
limiting our ability to interpret God's testimony. In love
God gave a special revelation of Himself to help us get
answers to these questions. Through both the Old and New
Testament He disclosed Himself to us in a specific way,
leaving no questions about His character of love. At first
His revelation came through prophets; then His ultimate
revelation, through the person of Jesus Christ (Heb. 1:1,2).
The Bible both contains propositions that declare the
truth about God, and reveals Him as a person. Both areas of
revelation are necessary: We need to know God through Jesus
Christ (John 17:3), as well as "the truth that is in Jesus"
(Eph. 4:21, NIV). And by means of the Scriptures God breaks
through our mental, moral, and spiritual limitations,
communicating His eagerness to save us.
The Focus of the Scriptures
The Bible reveals God and exposes humanity. It exposes
our predicament and reveals His solution. It presents us as
lost, estranged from God, and reveals Jesus as the one who
finds us and brings us back to God.
Jesus Christ is the focus of Scripture. The Old Testament
sets forth the Son of God as the Messiah, the world's
Redeemer; the New Testament reveals Him as Jesus Christ, the
Savior. Every page, either through symbol or reality,
reveals some phase of His work and character. Jesus' death
on the cross is the ultimate revelation of God's character.
The cross makes this ultimate revelation because it
brings together two extremes: man's unfathomable evil and
God's inexhaustible love. What could give us greater insight
into human fallibility? What could better reveal sin? The
cross reveals a God who allowed His only Son to be killed.
What a sacrifice! What greater revelation of love could He
have made? Indeed, the focus of the Bible is Jesus Christ.
He is at the center stage of the cosmic drama. Soon His
triumph at Calvary will culminate in the elimination of
evil. Human beings and God will be reunited.
The theme of God's love, particularly as seen in Christ's
sacrificial death on Calvary--the grandest truth of the
universe--is the focus of the Bible. All major Bible truths,
therefore, should be studied from this perspective.
Authorship of the Scriptures
The Bible's authority for faith and practice rises from
its origin. Its writers viewed the Bible as distinct from
other literature. They referred to it as "Holy Scriptures"
(Rom. 1:2), "sacred writings" (2 Tim.3:15, RSV), and the
"oracles of God" (Rom.3:2; Heb.5:12).
The uniqueness of the Scriptures is based on their origin
and source. The Bible writers claimed they did not originate
their messages but received them from divine sources. It was
through divine revelation that they were able "to see" the
truths they passed on (see Isa.1:1; Amos 1:1; Micah 1:1;
Hab 1:1; Jer.38:21).
These writers pointed to the Holy Spirit as the one who
communicated through the prophets to the people (Neh. 9:30;
cf. Zech. 7:12). David said, "The Spirit of the Lord spoke
by me, and His word was on my tongue" (2 Sam. 23:2). Ezekiel
wrote, "the Spirit entered me," "the Spirit of the Lord fell
upon me," "the Spirit took me up" (Eze. 2:2; ll:5, 24). And
Micah testified, "I am full of power by the Spirit of the
Lord" (Micah 3:8).
The New Testament recognized the role of the Holy Spirit
in the production of the Old Testament. Jesus said that
David was inspired by the Holy Spirit (Mark 12:36). Paul
believed that the Holy Spirit spoke "through Isaiah" (Acts
28:25). Peter revealed that the Holy Spirit guided all the
prophets, not just a few (1 Peter 1:10, 11; 2 Peter 1:21).
At times the writer faded completely into the background,
and only the real author--the Holy Spirit--was acknowledged:
"The Holy Spirit says..." "By this the Holy Spirit
indicates..." (Heb. 3:7; 9:8, RSV).
The New Testament writers recognized the Holy Spirit as
the source of their own messages also. Paul explained, "Now
the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will
depart from the faith" (1 Tim. 4:1). John spoke of being "in
the Spirit on the Lord's day" (Rev. 1:10). And Jesus
commissioned His apostles through the agency of the Holy
Spirit (Acts 1:2; cf. Eph. 3:3-5).
So God, in the person of the Holy Spirit, has revealed
Himself through the Holy Scriptures. He wrote them, not with
His hands, but with other hands, about forty pairs, over a
period of more than 1500 years. And since God the Holy
Spirit inspired the writers, God, then, is its author.
Inspiration of the Scriptures
"All Scripture," Paul says, "is given by inspiration of
God" (2 Tim. 3:16). The Greek word theopneustos, translated
as "inspiration," literally means "God-breathed." God
"breathed" truth into men's minds. They, in turn, expressed
it in the words found in the Scriptures. Inspiration,
therefore, is the process through which God communicates His
The Process of Inspiration.
Divine revelation was given by inspiration of God to
"holy men of God" who were "moved by the Holy Spirit"
(2 Peter 1:21). These revelations were embodied in human
language with all its limitations and imperfections, yet
they remained God's testimony. God inspired men--not words.
Were the prophets as passive as tape recorders that
replay exactly what is recorded? In some instances writers
were commanded to express the exact words of God, but in
most cases God instructed them to describe to the best of
their ability what they saw or heard. In these latter cases,
the writers used their own language patterns and style.
Paul observed that "the spirits of the prophets are
subject to the prophets" (1 Cor. 14:32). Genuine inspiration
does not obliterate the prophet's individuality, reason,
integrity, or personality.
To some degree, Moses and Aaron's relationship
illustrates that between the Holy Spirit and the writer. God
said to Moses, "`I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and
Aaron your brother shall be your prophet'" (Ex. 7:1 cf.
4:15, 16). Moses informed Aaron of God's messages, and, in
turn, Aaron communicated them in his own vocabulary and
style to Pharaoh. Likewise Bible writers conveyed divine
commands, thoughts, and ideas, in their own style of
language. It is because God communicates in this way that
the vocabulary of the different books of the Bible is varied
and reflects the education and culture of the writers.
The Bible "is not God's mode of thought and expression...
Men will often say such an expression is not like God. But
God has not put Himself in words, in logic, in rhetoric, on
trial in the Bible. The writers of the Bible were God's
penmen, not His pen."(*1) "Inspiration acts not on the man's
words or his expressions but on the man himself, who, under
the influence of the Holy Ghost, is imbued with thoughts.
But the words receive the impress of the individual mind.
The divine mind is diffused. The divine mind and will is
combined with the human mind and will; thus the utterances
of the man are the word of God."(*2)
In one instance we have God speaking and writing the
exact words, the Ten Commandments. They are of divine, not
human composition (Ex. 20:1-17; 31:18; Deut. 10:4,5), yet
even these had to be expressed within the limits of human
The Bible, then, is divine truth expressed in human
language. Imagine trying to teach quantum physics to a baby.
This is the type of problem God faces in His attempt to
communicate divine truths to sinful, limited humanity. It is
our limitations that restrict what He can communicate to us.
A parallel exists between the incarnate Jesus and the
Bible: Jesus was God and man combined, the divine and the
human in one. So the Bible is the divine and human combined.
As it was said of Christ, so it can be affirmed of the Bible
that "the Word became flesh and dwelt among us" (John 1:14).
This divine-human combination makes the Bible unique among
Inspiration and the Writers
The Holy Spirit prepared certain persons to communicate
divine truth. The Bible does not explain in detail how He
qualified these individuals, but in some way He formed a
union between the divine and the human agent.
Those who had a part in writing the Bible were not chosen
because of natural talents. Nor did divine revelation
necessarily convert the person or assure him of eternal
life. Balaam proclaimed a divine message under inspiration
while acting contrary to God's counsels (Numbers 22-24).
David, who was used by the Holy Spirit, committed great
crimes (cf. Psalm 51). All the writers of the Bible were men
with sinful natures, needing God's grace daily
(cf .Rom. 3:12).
The inspiration the Biblical writers experienced was more
than illumination or divine guidance, for these come to all
who seek truth. In fact, the Biblical writers sometimes
wrote without fully understanding the divine message they
communicated (1 Peter 1:10-12).
The writers' responses to the messages they bore were not
uniform. Daniel and John said they were greatly perplexed
over their writings (Dan. 8:27; Rev. 5:4), and 1 Peter 1:10
indicates that other writers searched for the meaning of
their messages or those of others. Sometimes these
individuals feared to proclaim an inspired message, and some
even debated with God (Habakkuk 1; Jonah 1:1-3; 4:1-11).
The Method and Content of Revelation
Frequently the Holy Spirit Communicated divine knowledge
by means of visions and dreams (Num. 12:6). Sometimes He
spoke audibly or to the inner senses. God spoke to Samuel
"in his ear" (1 Sam. 9:15). Zechariah received symbolic
representations with explanations (Zechariah 4). The visions
of heaven that Paul and John received were accompanied by
oral instructions (2 Cor. 12:1-4; Revelation 4,5). Ezekiel
observed events transpiring in another location (Ezekiel 8).
Some writers participated in their visions, performing
certain functions as a part of the vision itself
As to contents, to some the Spirit revealed events yet to
occur (Daniel 2,7,8,12). Other writers recorded historical
events, either on the basis of personal experience or
through selecting materials from existing historical records
(Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Chronicles, the Gospels, Acts).
Inspiration and History
The Biblical assertion that "All Scripture is inspired by
God" or "God-breathed," profitable and authoritative for
moral and spiritual living (2 Tim. 3:15,16, RSV; NIV) leaves
no question about divine guidance in the selection process.
Whether the information came from personal observation, oral
or written sources, or direct revelation, it all came to the
writer through the Holy Spirit's guidance. This guarantees
the Bible's trustworthiness.
The Bible reveals God's plan in His dynamic interaction
with the human race, not in a collection of abstract
doctrines. His self-revelation stands rooted in real events
that occurred in a definite time and place. The reliability
of the historical accounts is extremely important because
they form the framework of our understanding of God's
character and His purpose for us. An accurate understanding
leads to eternal life, but an incorrect view leads to
confusion and death.
God commanded certain men to write a history of His
dealings with Israel. These historical narratives, written
from a viewpoint different from that of secular history,
comprise an important part of the Bible (cf. Num. 33:1,2;
Joshua 24:25,26; Eze. 24:2). They provide us with accurate,
objective history, from a divine perspective. The Holy
Spirit gave the writers special insights so that they could
record events in the controversy between good and evil that
demonstrate the character of God and guide people in their
quest for salvation.
The historical incidents are "types" or "examples"
"written for our admonition, on whom the ends of the ages
have come" (1 Cor. 10:11). Paul says, "For everything that
was written in the past was written to teach us, so that
through endurance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we
might have hope" (Rom. 15:4, NIV). The destruction of Sodom
and Gomorrah serves as "an example" or warning (2 Peter 2:6;
Jude 7). Abraham's experience of justification is an example
for every believer (Rom. 4:1-25; James 2:14-22). Even Old
Testament civil laws, filled with deep spiritual meaning,
are written for our benefit today (1 Cor. 9:8,9).
Luke mentions that he wrote his Gospel because he wanted
to give an account of Jesus' life "that you may know the
certainty of those things in which you were instructed"
(Luke 1:4). John's criterion for selecting which incidents
of Jesus' life to include in his Gospel was "that you may
believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that
believing you may have life in His name" (John 20:31). God
led the Bible writers to present history in a way that would
guide us to salvation.
The biographies of Biblical personalities provide another
evidence of divine inspiration. These accounts carefully
delineate both the weaknesses and strengths of their
characters. They faithfully depict their sins, as well as
No cover-up shrouds Noah's lack of self-control or
Abraham's deception. The fits of tempers that Moses, Paul,
James, and John exhibited are recorded. Bible history
exposes the failures of Israel's wisest king, and the
frailties of the twelve patriarchs and twelve apostles.
Scripture makes no excuses for them, nor does it attempt to
minimize their guilt. It portrays them all for what they
were and what they became or failed to become by the grace
of God. Without divine inspiration no biographer could write
such a perceptive analysis.
The Bible's writers viewed all the historical narratives
it contains as true historical records, not as myths or
symbols. Many contemporary skeptics reject the stories of
Adam and Eve, Jonah, and the Flood. Yet Jesus accepted them
as historically accurate and spiritually relevant
(Matt. 12:39-41; 19:4-6; 24:37-39).
The Bible does not teach partial inspiration or degrees
of inspiration. These theories are speculations that rob the
Bible of its divine authority.
The Accuracy of the Scriptures.
Just as Jesus "became flesh and dwelt among us" (John
1:14), so, in order for us to understand truth, the Bible
was given in the language of humanity. The inspiration of
the Scriptures guarantees their trustworthiness.
How far did God safeguard the transmission of the text
beyond assuring that its message is valid and true? It is
clear that while the ancient manuscripts vary, the essential
truths have been preserved.(*3) While it is quite possible
that copyists and translators of the Bible made minor
mistakes, evidence from Biblical archeology reveals that
many alleged errors were really misunderstandings on the
part of scholars. Some of these problems arose because
people were reading Biblical history and customs through
Western eyes. We must admit that humans only know in
part--their insight into divine operations remains
Perceived discrepancies, then, should not erode
confidence in the Scriptures; they often are products of our
inaccurate perceptions rather than actual mistakes. Is God
on trial when we come across a sentence or text that we
cannot fully understand? We may never be able to explain
every text in Scripture, but we do not have to. Fulfilled
prophecies verify the Scripture's reliability.
In spite of attempts to destroy it, the Bible has been
preserved with amazing, even miraculous, accuracy.
Comparison of the Dead Sea scrolls with later manuscripts of
the Old Testament demonstrates the carefulness with which it
has been transmitted.(*4) They confirm the trustworthiness
and reliability of the Scriptures as the infallible
revelation of God's will.
The Authority of the Scriptures
The Scriptures have divine authority because in them God
speaks through the Holy Spirit. Thus the Bible is the
written Word of God. Where is the evidence for this claim
and what are the implications for our lives and our pursuit
The Claims of the Scriptures
The Bible writers testify that their messages come
directly from God. It is "the word of the Lord" that came to
Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, and others (Jer. 1:1,2,9; Eze.
1:3; Hosea 1:1; Joel 1:1; Jonah 1:1). As messengers of the
Lord (Haggai 1:13; 2 Chron. 36:16), God's prophets were
commanded to speak in His name, saying "Thus says the Lord"
(Eze. 2:4; cf. Isa. 7:7). His words constitute their divine
credentials and authority.
At times the human agent God is using recedes into the
background. Matthew alludes to the authority behind the Old
Testament prophet he quotes with the words, "all this was
done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord
through the prophet" (Matt. 1:22). He sees the Lord as the
direct agency, the authority; the prophet is the indirect
Peter classifies Paul's writings as Scripture (2 Peter
3:15,16). And Paul testifies regarding what he wrote, "I did
not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came
through a revelation of Jesus Christ" (Gal. 1:12, RSV). New
Testament writers accepted the words of Christ as Scripture
and regarded them as having the same authority as the Old
Testament writings (1 Tim. 5:18; Luke 10:7).
Jesus and the Authority of Scripture
Throughout His ministry, Jesus stressed the authority of
the Scriptures. When tempted by Satan or battling His
opponents, "It is written" was His defense and offense
(Matt. 4:4,7,10; Luke 20:17). "`Man shall not live by bread
alone,'" He said, "`but by every word that proceeds from the
mouth of God'" (Matt. 4:4). When asked how one could enter
into eternal life, He answered, "`What is written in the
law? What is your reading of it?'" (Luke 10:26).
Jesus placed the Bible above human traditions and
opinions. He rebuked the Jews for setting aside the
authority of the Scriptures (Mark 7:7-9), and appealed to
them to study the Scriptures more carefully, saying,
"`Haven't you ever read what the Scriptures say?'"
(Matt. 21:42, TEV; cf. Mark 12:10,26).
He strongly believed in the authority of the prophetic
word and revealed that it pointed to Himself. The
Scriptures, He said, "`testify of Me.'" "`If you believe
Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me'" (John
5:39,46). Jesus' most convincing assertion that He had a
divine mission issued from His fulfilment of Old Testament
prophecy (Luke 24:25-27).
So, without reservation Christ accepted the Holy
Scriptures as the authoritative revelation of God's will for
the human race. He saw the Scriptures as a body of truth, an
objective revelation, given to lead humanity out of the
darkness of faulty traditions and myths into the true light
of a saving knowledge.
The Holy Spirit and the Authority of Scripture
During Jesus' life the religious leaders and the careless
crowd did not discern His true identity. Some felt He was a
prophet like John the Baptist, Elijah, or Jeremiah--merely a
man. When Peter confessed that Jesus was "`the Christ, the
Son of the living God,'" Jesus pointed out that it was
divine illumination that made possible his confession (Matt.
16:13-17). Paul emphasizes this truth: "No one can say that
Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit" (1 Cor. 12:3).
So it is with the written Word of God. Without the Holy
Spirit's illumination of our minds we could never correctly
understand the Bible, or even acknowledge it as God's
authoritative will.(*5) Because "no one knows the things of
God except the Spirit of God" (1 Cor. 2:11) it follows that
"the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit
of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know
them, because they are spiritually discerned" (1 Cor. 2:14).
Consequently "the message of the cross is foolishness to
those who are perishing" (1 Cor. 1:18).
Only with the aid of the Holy Spirit, who searches "the
deep things of God" (1 Cor. 2:10), can one become convicted
of the authority of the Bible as a revelation of God and His
will. It is then that the cross becomes "the power of God"
(1 Cor. 1:18) and one can join Paul's testimony, "Now we
have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit
who is from God, that we might know the things that have
been freely given to us by God" (1 Cor. 2:12).
The Holy Scriptures and the Holy Spirit can never be
separated. The Holy Spirit is both the author and revealer
of Biblical truth.
The Scriptures' authority in our lives increases or
decreases in accord with our concept of inspiration. If we
perceive the Bible as being merely a collection of human
testimonies or if the authority we grant it in some way
depends on how it moves our feelings or emotions, we sap its
authority in our lives. But when we discern God's voice
speaking through the writers, no matter how weak and human
they may have been, the Scriptures become the absolute
authority in matters of doctrine, reproof, correction and
instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).
The Scope of Scriptural Authority
Contradictions between Scripture and science are
frequently the result of speculation. When we cannot
harmonize science with Scripture, it is because we have "an
imperfect comprehension of either science or revelation...
but rightly understood, they are in perfect harmony."(*6)
All human wisdom must be subject to the authority of
Scripture. The Bible truths are the norm by which all other
ideas must be tested. Judging the Word of God by finite
human standards is like trying to measure the stars with a
yardstick. The Bible must not be subjected to human norms.
It is superior to all human wisdom and literature. Rather
than our judging the Bible, all will be judged by it, for it
is the standard of character and test of all experience and
Finally, the Scriptures retain authority even over the
gifts that come from the Holy Spirit, including guidance
through the gift of prophecy or speaking in tongues (1
Corinthians 12; 14:1, Eph. 4:7-16). The gifts of the Spirit
do not supersede the Bible; indeed, they must be tested by
the Bible, and if not in accord with it, they must be
discarded as not genuine. "To the law and to the testimony!
If they do not speak according to this word, it is because
there is no light in them" (Isa. 8:20). (See chapter 17 of
The Unity of the Scriptures
A superficial reading of the Scriptures will yield a
superficial understanding of it. Read in such a way, the
Bible may appear to be a jumble of stories, sermons, and
history. Yet, those open to the illumination of the Spirit
of God, those willing to search for the hidden truths with
patience and much prayer, discover that the Bible evidences
an underlying unity in what it teaches about the principles
of salvation. The Bible is not monotonously uniform. Rather,
it comprises a rich and colorful diversity of harmonious
testimonies of rare and distinct beauty. And because of its
variety of perspectives it is better able to meet human
needs through all times.
God has not revealed Himself to humanity in a continuous
chain of unbroken utterances, but little by little, through
successive generations. Whether penned by Moses in a Midian
field, or Paul in a Roman prison, its books reveal the same
Spirit-inspired communication. An understanding of this
"progressive revelation" contributes to an understanding of
the Bible and its unity.
Though written generations apart, the truths of the Old
and New Testaments remain inseparable; they do not
contradict each other. The two testaments are one, as God is
one. The Old Testament, through prophecies and symbols,
reveals the gospel of the Saviour to come; the New
Testament, through the life of Jesus, reveals the Saviour
who came--the gospel in reality. Both reveal the same God.
The Old Testament serves as foundation for the New. It
provides the key to unlock the New while the New explains
the mysteries of the Old.
God graciously calls us to become acquainted with Him by
searching His Word. In it we can find the rich blessing of
the assurance of our salvation. We can discover for
ourselves that the Scriptures are "profitable for doctrine,
for reproof, for correction, for instruction in
righteousness." Through them we "may be complete, thoroughly
equipped for every good work" (2 Tim. 3:16,17).
1. Ellen G. White, Selected Messages, (Washington, D.C.:
Review and Herald, 1958), book 1,p.21.
3. For a reason for some variant readings, see White, Early
Writings (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, l945), pp.
4. See Siegfried H. Horn, The Spade Confirms the Book, rev.
ed., (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, l980)
5. For the general Seventh-day Adventist understanding of
Biblical interpretation, see General Conference Committee,
Report of the General Conference Committee Annual Council,
Oct. 12, 1986, "Methods of Bible Study," Distributed by the
Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh->
Adventists, 6840 Eastern Ave., N. W., Washington, D.C.
20012. See also A Symposium on Biblical Hermeneutics, ed.
G.M. Hyde (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1974);
Gerhard F. Hasel, Understanding the Living Word of God
(Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1980). Cf. P. Gerard
Damsteegt, "Interpreting the Bible" (Paper prepared for the
Far Eastern Division Biblical Research Committee Meeting,
Singapore, May 1986).
6. White, The Story of Patriarchs and Prophets (Mountain
View, CA: Pacific Press, 1958), p. 114.