Chapter 1: THE WORD OF GOD


Seventh-day Adventists Believe...

The Holy Scriptures, Old and New Testaments, are the

written Word of God, given by divine inspiration through

holy men of God who spoke and wrote as they were moved by

the Holy Spirit. In this Word, God has committed to man the

knowledge necessary for salvation. The Holy Scriptures are

the infallible revelation of His will. They are the standard

of character, the test of experience, the authoritative

revealer of doctrines, and the trustworthy record of God's

acts in history.-- Fundamental Beliefs,1

 

THE WORD OF GOD

No book has been so loved, so hated, so revered, so

damned as the Bible. People have died for the Bible. Others

have killed for it. It has inspired man's greatest, noblest

acts, and been blamed for his most damnable and degenerate.

Wars have raged over the Bible, revolutions have been

nurtured in its pages, and kingdoms crumbled through its

ideas. People of all viewpoints--from liberation theologians

to capitalists, from fascists to Marxists, from dictators to

liberators, from pacifists to militarists--search its pages

for words with which to justify their deeds.

The Bible's uniqueness does not come from its

unparalleled political, cultural, and social influence, but

from its source and its subject matter. It is God's

revelation of the unique God-man: the Son of God, Jesus

Christ --the Saviour of the world.

Divine Revelation

While throughout history some have questioned God's

existence, many have confidently testified that He exists

and that He has disclosed Himself. In what ways has God

revealed Himself, and how does the Bible function in His

revelation?

General Revelation

The insight into God's character that history, human

behavior, conscience, and nature provide is frequently

called "general revelation" because it is available to all

and appeals to reason.

For millions, "The heavens declare the glory of God; and

the firmament shows His handiwork" (Ps. 19:1). The sunshine,

rain, hills, and streams, all testify of a loving Creator.

"For since the creation of the world His invisible

attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things

that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that

they are without excuse" (Rom. 1:20).

Others see evidence of a caring God in the happy

relationships and extraordinary love between friends, family

members, husband and wife, parents and children. "As one

whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you" (Isa.

66:13). "As a father pities his children, so the Lord pities

those who fear Him" (Ps. 103:13).

Yet the same sunshine that testifies of a loving Creator

can turn the earth into a parched desert, bringing

starvation. The same rain can turn into a rush of water that

drowns families; the same lofty hill can crack, crumble--and

then crush. And human relationships often involve jealousy,

envy, anger, and even hatred that leads to murder.

The world around us gives mixed signals, presenting more

questions than it answers. It reveals a conflict between

good and evil, but does not explain how and why the conflict

started, who is fighting, why, or who will ultimately win.

Special Revelation

Sin obscures God's self-revelation through creation by

limiting our ability to interpret God's testimony. In love

God gave a special revelation of Himself to help us get

answers to these questions. Through both the Old and New

Testament He disclosed Himself to us in a specific way,

leaving no questions about His character of love. At first

His revelation came through prophets; then His ultimate

revelation, through the person of Jesus Christ (Heb. 1:1,2).

The Bible both contains propositions that declare the

truth about God, and reveals Him as a person. Both areas of

revelation are necessary: We need to know God through Jesus

Christ (John 17:3), as well as "the truth that is in Jesus"

(Eph. 4:21, NIV). And by means of the Scriptures God breaks

through our mental, moral, and spiritual limitations,

communicating His eagerness to save us.

The Focus of the Scriptures

The Bible reveals God and exposes humanity. It exposes

our predicament and reveals His solution. It presents us as

lost, estranged from God, and reveals Jesus as the one who

finds us and brings us back to God.

Jesus Christ is the focus of Scripture. The Old Testament

sets forth the Son of God as the Messiah, the world's

Redeemer; the New Testament reveals Him as Jesus Christ, the

Savior. Every page, either through symbol or reality,

reveals some phase of His work and character. Jesus' death

on the cross is the ultimate revelation of God's character.

The cross makes this ultimate revelation because it

brings together two extremes: man's unfathomable evil and

God's inexhaustible love. What could give us greater insight

into human fallibility? What could better reveal sin? The

cross reveals a God who allowed His only Son to be killed.

What a sacrifice! What greater revelation of love could He

have made? Indeed, the focus of the Bible is Jesus Christ.

He is at the center stage of the cosmic drama. Soon His

triumph at Calvary will culminate in the elimination of

evil. Human beings and God will be reunited.

The theme of God's love, particularly as seen in Christ's

sacrificial death on Calvary--the grandest truth of the

universe--is the focus of the Bible. All major Bible truths,

therefore, should be studied from this perspective.

Authorship of the Scriptures

The Bible's authority for faith and practice rises from

its origin. Its writers viewed the Bible as distinct from

other literature. They referred to it as "Holy Scriptures"

(Rom. 1:2), "sacred writings" (2 Tim.3:15, RSV), and the

"oracles of God" (Rom.3:2; Heb.5:12).

The uniqueness of the Scriptures is based on their origin

and source. The Bible writers claimed they did not originate

their messages but received them from divine sources. It was

through divine revelation that they were able "to see" the

truths they passed on (see Isa.1:1; Amos 1:1; Micah 1:1;

Hab 1:1; Jer.38:21).

These writers pointed to the Holy Spirit as the one who

communicated through the prophets to the people (Neh. 9:30;

cf. Zech. 7:12). David said, "The Spirit of the Lord spoke

by me, and His word was on my tongue" (2 Sam. 23:2). Ezekiel

wrote, "the Spirit entered me," "the Spirit of the Lord fell

upon me," "the Spirit took me up" (Eze. 2:2; ll:5, 24). And

Micah testified, "I am full of power by the Spirit of the

Lord" (Micah 3:8).

The New Testament recognized the role of the Holy Spirit

in the production of the Old Testament. Jesus said that

David was inspired by the Holy Spirit (Mark 12:36). Paul

believed that the Holy Spirit spoke "through Isaiah" (Acts

28:25). Peter revealed that the Holy Spirit guided all the

prophets, not just a few (1 Peter 1:10, 11; 2 Peter 1:21).

At times the writer faded completely into the background,

and only the real author--the Holy Spirit--was acknowledged:

"The Holy Spirit says..." "By this the Holy Spirit

indicates..." (Heb. 3:7; 9:8, RSV).

The New Testament writers recognized the Holy Spirit as

the source of their own messages also. Paul explained, "Now

the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will

depart from the faith" (1 Tim. 4:1). John spoke of being "in

the Spirit on the Lord's day" (Rev. 1:10). And Jesus

commissioned His apostles through the agency of the Holy

Spirit (Acts 1:2; cf. Eph. 3:3-5).

So God, in the person of the Holy Spirit, has revealed

Himself through the Holy Scriptures. He wrote them, not with

His hands, but with other hands, about forty pairs, over a

period of more than 1500 years. And since God the Holy

Spirit inspired the writers, God, then, is its author.

Inspiration of the Scriptures

"All Scripture," Paul says, "is given by inspiration of

God" (2 Tim. 3:16). The Greek word theopneustos, translated

as "inspiration," literally means "God-breathed." God

"breathed" truth into men's minds. They, in turn, expressed

it in the words found in the Scriptures. Inspiration,

therefore, is the process through which God communicates His

eternal truth.

The Process of Inspiration.

Divine revelation was given by inspiration of God to

"holy men of God" who were "moved by the Holy Spirit"

(2 Peter 1:21). These revelations were embodied in human

language with all its limitations and imperfections, yet

they remained God's testimony. God inspired men--not words.

Were the prophets as passive as tape recorders that

replay exactly what is recorded? In some instances writers

were commanded to express the exact words of God, but in

most cases God instructed them to describe to the best of

their ability what they saw or heard. In these latter cases,

the writers used their own language patterns and style.

Paul observed that "the spirits of the prophets are

subject to the prophets" (1 Cor. 14:32). Genuine inspiration

does not obliterate the prophet's individuality, reason,

integrity, or personality.

To some degree, Moses and Aaron's relationship

illustrates that between the Holy Spirit and the writer. God

said to Moses, "`I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and

Aaron your brother shall be your prophet'" (Ex. 7:1 cf.

4:15, 16). Moses informed Aaron of God's messages, and, in

turn, Aaron communicated them in his own vocabulary and

style to Pharaoh. Likewise Bible writers conveyed divine

commands, thoughts, and ideas, in their own style of

language. It is because God communicates in this way that

the vocabulary of the different books of the Bible is varied

and reflects the education and culture of the writers.

The Bible "is not God's mode of thought and expression...

Men will often say such an expression is not like God. But

God has not put Himself in words, in logic, in rhetoric, on

trial in the Bible. The writers of the Bible were God's

penmen, not His pen."(*1) "Inspiration acts not on the man's

words or his expressions but on the man himself, who, under

the influence of the Holy Ghost, is imbued with thoughts.

But the words receive the impress of the individual mind.

The divine mind is diffused. The divine mind and will is

combined with the human mind and will; thus the utterances

of the man are the word of God."(*2)

In one instance we have God speaking and writing the

exact words, the Ten Commandments. They are of divine, not

human composition (Ex. 20:1-17; 31:18; Deut. 10:4,5), yet

even these had to be expressed within the limits of human

language.

The Bible, then, is divine truth expressed in human

language. Imagine trying to teach quantum physics to a baby.

This is the type of problem God faces in His attempt to

communicate divine truths to sinful, limited humanity. It is

our limitations that restrict what He can communicate to us.

A parallel exists between the incarnate Jesus and the

Bible: Jesus was God and man combined, the divine and the

human in one. So the Bible is the divine and human combined.

As it was said of Christ, so it can be affirmed of the Bible

that "the Word became flesh and dwelt among us" (John 1:14).

This divine-human combination makes the Bible unique among

literary works.

Inspiration and the Writers

The Holy Spirit prepared certain persons to communicate

divine truth. The Bible does not explain in detail how He

qualified these individuals, but in some way He formed a

union between the divine and the human agent.

Those who had a part in writing the Bible were not chosen

because of natural talents. Nor did divine revelation

necessarily convert the person or assure him of eternal

life. Balaam proclaimed a divine message under inspiration

while acting contrary to God's counsels (Numbers 22-24).

David, who was used by the Holy Spirit, committed great

crimes (cf. Psalm 51). All the writers of the Bible were men

with sinful natures, needing God's grace daily

(cf .Rom. 3:12).

The inspiration the Biblical writers experienced was more

than illumination or divine guidance, for these come to all

who seek truth. In fact, the Biblical writers sometimes

wrote without fully understanding the divine message they

communicated (1 Peter 1:10-12).

The writers' responses to the messages they bore were not

uniform. Daniel and John said they were greatly perplexed

over their writings (Dan. 8:27; Rev. 5:4), and 1 Peter 1:10

indicates that other writers searched for the meaning of

their messages or those of others. Sometimes these

individuals feared to proclaim an inspired message, and some

even debated with God (Habakkuk 1; Jonah 1:1-3; 4:1-11).

The Method and Content of Revelation

Frequently the Holy Spirit Communicated divine knowledge

by means of visions and dreams (Num. 12:6). Sometimes He

spoke audibly or to the inner senses. God spoke to Samuel

"in his ear" (1 Sam. 9:15). Zechariah received symbolic

representations with explanations (Zechariah 4). The visions

of heaven that Paul and John received were accompanied by

oral instructions (2 Cor. 12:1-4; Revelation 4,5). Ezekiel

observed events transpiring in another location (Ezekiel 8).

Some writers participated in their visions, performing

certain functions as a part of the vision itself

(Revelation 10).

As to contents, to some the Spirit revealed events yet to

occur (Daniel 2,7,8,12). Other writers recorded historical

events, either on the basis of personal experience or

through selecting materials from existing historical records

(Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Chronicles, the Gospels, Acts).

Inspiration and History

The Biblical assertion that "All Scripture is inspired by

God" or "God-breathed," profitable and authoritative for

moral and spiritual living (2 Tim. 3:15,16, RSV; NIV) leaves

no question about divine guidance in the selection process.

Whether the information came from personal observation, oral

or written sources, or direct revelation, it all came to the

writer through the Holy Spirit's guidance. This guarantees

the Bible's trustworthiness.

The Bible reveals God's plan in His dynamic interaction

with the human race, not in a collection of abstract

doctrines. His self-revelation stands rooted in real events

that occurred in a definite time and place. The reliability

of the historical accounts is extremely important because

they form the framework of our understanding of God's

character and His purpose for us. An accurate understanding

leads to eternal life, but an incorrect view leads to

confusion and death.

God commanded certain men to write a history of His

dealings with Israel. These historical narratives, written

from a viewpoint different from that of secular history,

comprise an important part of the Bible (cf. Num. 33:1,2;

Joshua 24:25,26; Eze. 24:2). They provide us with accurate,

objective history, from a divine perspective. The Holy

Spirit gave the writers special insights so that they could

record events in the controversy between good and evil that

demonstrate the character of God and guide people in their

quest for salvation.

The historical incidents are "types" or "examples"

"written for our admonition, on whom the ends of the ages

have come" (1 Cor. 10:11). Paul says, "For everything that

was written in the past was written to teach us, so that

through endurance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we

might have hope" (Rom. 15:4, NIV). The destruction of Sodom

and Gomorrah serves as "an example" or warning (2 Peter 2:6;

Jude 7). Abraham's experience of justification is an example

for every believer (Rom. 4:1-25; James 2:14-22). Even Old

Testament civil laws, filled with deep spiritual meaning,

are written for our benefit today (1 Cor. 9:8,9).

Luke mentions that he wrote his Gospel because he wanted

to give an account of Jesus' life "that you may know the

certainty of those things in which you were instructed"

(Luke 1:4). John's criterion for selecting which incidents

of Jesus' life to include in his Gospel was "that you may

believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that

believing you may have life in His name" (John 20:31). God

led the Bible writers to present history in a way that would

guide us to salvation.

The biographies of Biblical personalities provide another

evidence of divine inspiration. These accounts carefully

delineate both the weaknesses and strengths of their

characters. They faithfully depict their sins, as well as

successes.

No cover-up shrouds Noah's lack of self-control or

Abraham's deception. The fits of tempers that Moses, Paul,

James, and John exhibited are recorded. Bible history

exposes the failures of Israel's wisest king, and the

frailties of the twelve patriarchs and twelve apostles.

Scripture makes no excuses for them, nor does it attempt to

minimize their guilt. It portrays them all for what they

were and what they became or failed to become by the grace

of God. Without divine inspiration no biographer could write

such a perceptive analysis.

The Bible's writers viewed all the historical narratives

it contains as true historical records, not as myths or

symbols. Many contemporary skeptics reject the stories of

Adam and Eve, Jonah, and the Flood. Yet Jesus accepted them

as historically accurate and spiritually relevant

(Matt. 12:39-41; 19:4-6; 24:37-39).

The Bible does not teach partial inspiration or degrees

of inspiration. These theories are speculations that rob the

Bible of its divine authority.

The Accuracy of the Scriptures.

Just as Jesus "became flesh and dwelt among us" (John

1:14), so, in order for us to understand truth, the Bible

was given in the language of humanity. The inspiration of

the Scriptures guarantees their trustworthiness.

How far did God safeguard the transmission of the text

beyond assuring that its message is valid and true? It is

clear that while the ancient manuscripts vary, the essential

truths have been preserved.(*3) While it is quite possible

that copyists and translators of the Bible made minor

mistakes, evidence from Biblical archeology reveals that

many alleged errors were really misunderstandings on the

part of scholars. Some of these problems arose because

people were reading Biblical history and customs through

Western eyes. We must admit that humans only know in

part--their insight into divine operations remains

fragmentary.

Perceived discrepancies, then, should not erode

confidence in the Scriptures; they often are products of our

inaccurate perceptions rather than actual mistakes. Is God

on trial when we come across a sentence or text that we

cannot fully understand? We may never be able to explain

every text in Scripture, but we do not have to. Fulfilled

prophecies verify the Scripture's reliability.

In spite of attempts to destroy it, the Bible has been

preserved with amazing, even miraculous, accuracy.

Comparison of the Dead Sea scrolls with later manuscripts of

the Old Testament demonstrates the carefulness with which it

has been transmitted.(*4) They confirm the trustworthiness

and reliability of the Scriptures as the infallible

revelation of God's will.

The Authority of the Scriptures

The Scriptures have divine authority because in them God

speaks through the Holy Spirit. Thus the Bible is the

written Word of God. Where is the evidence for this claim

and what are the implications for our lives and our pursuit

of knowledge?

The Claims of the Scriptures

The Bible writers testify that their messages come

directly from God. It is "the word of the Lord" that came to

Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, and others (Jer. 1:1,2,9; Eze.

1:3; Hosea 1:1; Joel 1:1; Jonah 1:1). As messengers of the

Lord (Haggai 1:13; 2 Chron. 36:16), God's prophets were

commanded to speak in His name, saying "Thus says the Lord"

(Eze. 2:4; cf. Isa. 7:7). His words constitute their divine

credentials and authority.

At times the human agent God is using recedes into the

background. Matthew alludes to the authority behind the Old

Testament prophet he quotes with the words, "all this was

done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord

through the prophet" (Matt. 1:22). He sees the Lord as the

direct agency, the authority; the prophet is the indirect

agency.

Peter classifies Paul's writings as Scripture (2 Peter

3:15,16). And Paul testifies regarding what he wrote, "I did

not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came

through a revelation of Jesus Christ" (Gal. 1:12, RSV). New

Testament writers accepted the words of Christ as Scripture

and regarded them as having the same authority as the Old

Testament writings (1 Tim. 5:18; Luke 10:7).

Jesus and the Authority of Scripture

Throughout His ministry, Jesus stressed the authority of

the Scriptures. When tempted by Satan or battling His

opponents, "It is written" was His defense and offense

(Matt. 4:4,7,10; Luke 20:17). "`Man shall not live by bread

alone,'" He said, "`but by every word that proceeds from the

mouth of God'" (Matt. 4:4). When asked how one could enter

into eternal life, He answered, "`What is written in the

law? What is your reading of it?'" (Luke 10:26).

Jesus placed the Bible above human traditions and

opinions. He rebuked the Jews for setting aside the

authority of the Scriptures (Mark 7:7-9), and appealed to

them to study the Scriptures more carefully, saying,

"`Haven't you ever read what the Scriptures say?'"

(Matt. 21:42, TEV; cf. Mark 12:10,26).

He strongly believed in the authority of the prophetic

word and revealed that it pointed to Himself. The

Scriptures, He said, "`testify of Me.'" "`If you believe

Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me'" (John

5:39,46). Jesus' most convincing assertion that He had a

divine mission issued from His fulfilment of Old Testament

prophecy (Luke 24:25-27).

So, without reservation Christ accepted the Holy

Scriptures as the authoritative revelation of God's will for

the human race. He saw the Scriptures as a body of truth, an

objective revelation, given to lead humanity out of the

darkness of faulty traditions and myths into the true light

of a saving knowledge.

The Holy Spirit and the Authority of Scripture

During Jesus' life the religious leaders and the careless

crowd did not discern His true identity. Some felt He was a

prophet like John the Baptist, Elijah, or Jeremiah--merely a

man. When Peter confessed that Jesus was "`the Christ, the

Son of the living God,'" Jesus pointed out that it was

divine illumination that made possible his confession (Matt.

16:13-17). Paul emphasizes this truth: "No one can say that

Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit" (1 Cor. 12:3).

So it is with the written Word of God. Without the Holy

Spirit's illumination of our minds we could never correctly

understand the Bible, or even acknowledge it as God's

authoritative will.(*5) Because "no one knows the things of

God except the Spirit of God" (1 Cor. 2:11) it follows that

"the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit

of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know

them, because they are spiritually discerned" (1 Cor. 2:14).

Consequently "the message of the cross is foolishness to

those who are perishing" (1 Cor. 1:18).

Only with the aid of the Holy Spirit, who searches "the

deep things of God" (1 Cor. 2:10), can one become convicted

of the authority of the Bible as a revelation of God and His

will. It is then that the cross becomes "the power of God"

(1 Cor. 1:18) and one can join Paul's testimony, "Now we

have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit

who is from God, that we might know the things that have

been freely given to us by God" (1 Cor. 2:12).

The Holy Scriptures and the Holy Spirit can never be

separated. The Holy Spirit is both the author and revealer

of Biblical truth.

The Scriptures' authority in our lives increases or

decreases in accord with our concept of inspiration. If we

perceive the Bible as being merely a collection of human

testimonies or if the authority we grant it in some way

depends on how it moves our feelings or emotions, we sap its

authority in our lives. But when we discern God's voice

speaking through the writers, no matter how weak and human

they may have been, the Scriptures become the absolute

authority in matters of doctrine, reproof, correction and

instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).

The Scope of Scriptural Authority

Contradictions between Scripture and science are

frequently the result of speculation. When we cannot

harmonize science with Scripture, it is because we have "an

imperfect comprehension of either science or revelation...

but rightly understood, they are in perfect harmony."(*6)

All human wisdom must be subject to the authority of

Scripture. The Bible truths are the norm by which all other

ideas must be tested. Judging the Word of God by finite

human standards is like trying to measure the stars with a

yardstick. The Bible must not be subjected to human norms.

It is superior to all human wisdom and literature. Rather

than our judging the Bible, all will be judged by it, for it

is the standard of character and test of all experience and

thought.

Finally, the Scriptures retain authority even over the

gifts that come from the Holy Spirit, including guidance

through the gift of prophecy or speaking in tongues (1

Corinthians 12; 14:1, Eph. 4:7-16). The gifts of the Spirit

do not supersede the Bible; indeed, they must be tested by

the Bible, and if not in accord with it, they must be

discarded as not genuine. "To the law and to the testimony!

If they do not speak according to this word, it is because

there is no light in them" (Isa. 8:20). (See chapter 17 of

this book.)

The Unity of the Scriptures

A superficial reading of the Scriptures will yield a

superficial understanding of it. Read in such a way, the

Bible may appear to be a jumble of stories, sermons, and

history. Yet, those open to the illumination of the Spirit

of God, those willing to search for the hidden truths with

patience and much prayer, discover that the Bible evidences

an underlying unity in what it teaches about the principles

of salvation. The Bible is not monotonously uniform. Rather,

it comprises a rich and colorful diversity of harmonious

testimonies of rare and distinct beauty. And because of its

variety of perspectives it is better able to meet human

needs through all times.

God has not revealed Himself to humanity in a continuous

chain of unbroken utterances, but little by little, through

successive generations. Whether penned by Moses in a Midian

field, or Paul in a Roman prison, its books reveal the same

Spirit-inspired communication. An understanding of this

"progressive revelation" contributes to an understanding of

the Bible and its unity.

Though written generations apart, the truths of the Old

and New Testaments remain inseparable; they do not

contradict each other. The two testaments are one, as God is

one. The Old Testament, through prophecies and symbols,

reveals the gospel of the Saviour to come; the New

Testament, through the life of Jesus, reveals the Saviour

who came--the gospel in reality. Both reveal the same God.

The Old Testament serves as foundation for the New. It

provides the key to unlock the New while the New explains

the mysteries of the Old.

God graciously calls us to become acquainted with Him by

searching His Word. In it we can find the rich blessing of

the assurance of our salvation. We can discover for

ourselves that the Scriptures are "profitable for doctrine,

for reproof, for correction, for instruction in

righteousness." Through them we "may be complete, thoroughly

equipped for every good work" (2 Tim. 3:16,17).

References

1. Ellen G. White, Selected Messages, (Washington, D.C.:

Review and Herald, 1958), book 1,p.21.

2. Ibid.

3. For a reason for some variant readings, see White, Early

Writings (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, l945), pp.

220,221.

4. See Siegfried H. Horn, The Spade Confirms the Book, rev.

ed., (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, l980)

5. For the general Seventh-day Adventist understanding of

Biblical interpretation, see General Conference Committee,

Report of the General Conference Committee Annual Council,

Oct. 12, 1986, "Methods of Bible Study," Distributed by the

Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh->

Adventists, 6840 Eastern Ave., N. W., Washington, D.C.

20012. See also A Symposium on Biblical Hermeneutics, ed.

G.M. Hyde (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1974);

Gerhard F. Hasel, Understanding the Living Word of God

(Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1980). Cf. P. Gerard

Damsteegt, "Interpreting the Bible" (Paper prepared for the

Far Eastern Division Biblical Research Committee Meeting,

Singapore, May 1986).

6. White, The Story of Patriarchs and Prophets (Mountain

View, CA: Pacific Press, 1958), p. 114.