Chapter 15: THE LORD'S SUPPER
Seventh-day Adventists Believe...
The Lord's Supper is a participation in the emblems of the
body and blood of Jesus as an expression of faith in Him,
our Lord and Saviour. In this experience of communion Christ
is present to meet and strengthen His people. As we partake,
we joyfully proclaim the Lord's death until He comes again.
Preparation for the Supper includes self-examination,
repentance, and confession. The Master ordained the service
of foot washing to signify renewed cleansing, to express a
willingness to serve one another in Christlike humility, and
to unite our hearts in love. The communion service is open
to all believing Christians.--Fundamental Beliefs,15.
THE LORD'S SUPPER
With dusty feet they arrived at the upper room for the
Passover. Someone had provided a pitcher of water, a basin,
and a towel for the customary footwashing, but no one wanted
to perform the menial task.
Aware of His impending death, Jesus said sorrowfully,
"`With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover
with you before I suffer; for I say to you, I will no longer
eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God'"
The jealousy the disciples harbored against one another
filled Jesus' heart with sadness. He realized they were
still contending as to who should be considered the greatest
in His kingdom (Luke 22:24; Matt. 18:1; 20:21). It was their
maneuvering for position, their pride and self-esteem, that
prevented the disciples from humbling themselves, from
substituting for the servant and washing the feet of the
others. Would they ever learn that in God's kingdom true
greatness is revealed by humility and loving service?
"During supper" (John 13:2,4, RSV)(*1) Jesus quietly
arose, took the servant's towel, poured water into the
basin, knelt down, and began to wash the disciples' feet.
The Master as servant! Understanding the unspoken rebuke,
the disciples were filled with shame. When He had completed
His work and returned to His place, He said, "`If I then,
your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought
to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example,
that you should do as I have done to you. Truly, truly, I
say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is
he who is sent greater than he who sent him. If you know
these things, blessed are you if you do them'"
(John 13:14-17, RSV).
Jesus then instituted, in place of the Passover, the
service that was to memorialize His great sacrifice: the
Lord's Supper. Taking the unleavened bread, He "blessed it
and broke it, and gave it to the disciples" and said,
"`Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do
this in remembrance of Me.'" Then He took the cup of
blessing and "gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
`Drink from it, all of you. For this is My blood of the new
covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of
sins.'" "`This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance
of Me.' For as often as you eat this bread and drink this
cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes"
(see Matt. 26:26-28; 1 Cor. 11:24-26; 10:16).
The ordinances of foot washing and the Lord's Supper make
up the Communion service. Thus, Christ instituted both of
these ordinances to assist us with entering into communion
The Ordinance of Foot Washing
Custom demanded that in celebrating the Passover Jewish
families remove all leaven, sin, from their homes before the
first day of the Week of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 12:15,19,20).
So believers must confess and repent of all sin--including
pride, rivalry, jealousy, resentful feelings, and
selfishness--before they can be in the right spirit to have
communion with Christ at this deepest level.
To this end Christ instituted the ordinance of foot
washing. Not only did He set an example but stated they
ought to do the same, and promised them a blessing: "`If you
know these things, happy are you if you do them'" (John
13:17). This ordinance, preceding the Lord's Supper,
fulfills the injunction that all should examine themselves
so as not to participate in that meal "in an unworthy
manner" (1 Cor. 11:27-29).
The Meaning of the Ordinance
This ordinance reveals something about both Christ's
mission and the participants' experience.
1. A memorial of Christ's condescension.
The ordinance of foot washing memorializes Christ's
humiliation in His incarnation and life of service.(*2)
Although He held a position with the Father amidst celestial
glory, He "made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of
a servant, and coming in the likeness of men" (Phil. 2:7).
It was humiliating for God's Son to give so selflessly,
so lovingly, only to be rejected by the majority of those He
came to save. Throughout Christ's earthly life Satan was
determined to disgrace Him to the utmost at every turn. What
mortification it must have brought Him--the innocent One--to
be crucified as a criminal!
Christ lived a life that was a life of selfless service.
He did not come "`to be served, but to serve'" (Matt.
20:28). Through the act of foot washing He showed that He
would do any service, no matter how lowly, to save people.
Thus He impressed His life of service and meekness on the
minds of His followers.
In making this preparation ceremony an ordinance, Christ
intended to lead believers into a state of tenderness and
love that would move them to serve others. This ordinance
encourages those who reflect on its significance to treat
others with humility and sensitivity. By following Christ in
foot washing we profess His spirit: "Through love serve one
another" (Gal. 5:13).
Though participation in this service is humbling, it is
far from degrading. Who would not feel privileged to bow
before Christ and wash the very feet that were nailed to the
cross? Jesus said, "`Inasmuch as you did it to one of the
least of these My brethren, you did it to Me'"
2. A type of a higher cleansing.
The foot washing did more than clean feet. It represented
a higher purification--a cleansing of the heart. When Peter
asked Jesus to wash him all over, Jesus said, "`He who is
bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely
clean'" (John 13:10).
One who takes a bath is clean. However, open, sandaled
feet soon become dusty and need washing again. So with the
disciples. Their sins had been washed away through baptism,
but temptation had led them to cherish pride, jealousy, and
evil in their hearts. They were not ready to have intimate
communion with their Lord, nor to accept the new covenant He
was about to make with them. Through the foot washing Christ
desired to prepare them to take part in the Lord's Supper.
Except for Judas, the betrayer, their hearts were cleansed
by Christ's grace from selfishness and pride, and they were
united in love for one another; through Jesus' selfless act
they were humbled and became teachable.
Like the disciples, when we have accepted Christ and been
baptized we have been cleansed by His blood. But as we walk
the Christian life, we fail. Our feet become dusty. We must
come to Christ again and let His cleansing grace wash away
the defilement. However, we do not need to be baptized again
for "he who is bathed needs only to wash his feet" (John
13:10).(*3) Foot washing as an ordinance reminds us of our
need for regular cleansing and that we are totally dependent
upon the blood of Christ. Foot washing itself cannot cleanse
from sin. Only Christ can purify us.
3. A fellowship of forgiveness.
The attitude of forgiveness among the participants
indicates that the cleansing this service symbolizes has
become effective. Only as we forgive can we experience God's
forgiveness. "If you forgive men their trespasses, your
heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not
forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father
forgive your trespasses" (Matt. 6:14,15).
Jesus said, "`You also ought to wash one another's feet'"
(John 13:14). We need both to be willing to wash another's
feet and to be willing to be washed by another. In the
latter case we admit our need of spiritual help.
When the service is over, our faith assures us that we
are clean because our sins have been washed away. By whom?
By Christ. But it is fellow believers who administer to us
the symbols of Christ's ministry and so this service becomes
a fellowship of forgiveness.(*4)
4. A fellowship with Christ and believers.
This foot washing service demonstrates Christ's love for
His followers "to the end" (John 13:1). When Peter refused
to have his feet washed Christ responded, "`If I do not wash
you, you have no part with Me'" (verse 8). No cleansing, no
fellowship. Those desiring continuing fellowship with Christ
will participate in this ordinance.
That same evening Jesus said, "`A new commandment I give
to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that
you also love one another'" (verse 34). The message of the
ordinance is clear: "Through love serve one another" (Gal.
5:13). Having this kind of love means that we will concede
the highest place to our neighbors by esteeming others
better than ourselves (Phil 2:3). It mandates us to love
those who differ with us. It allows us to hold neither
feelings of supremacy nor partiality. Our lifestyles will
reflect our love for fellow believers. Kneeling before them,
washing their feet, we rejoice that we will live with them
throughout eternity. All who follow Christ's example in this
ordinance will in some way experience what it means to love
as Christ loved. And such love can be a powerful witness.
A Buddhist monk once asked a missionary to suggest a
scene that would represent Christianity. Artists were to
decorate a hall on the monastery grounds with murals and
reliefs that depicted major world religions. After some
reflection the missionary began to share the account in John
13. The monk "said nothing as I read," the missionary
recounted, "but I felt a strange, awesome quietness and
power as the passage described Jesus' act of washing the
disciples' feet." In that culture, discussing in public
anything having to do with matters of the feet is considered
very poor etiquette.
"When I finished reading, there was a moment of silence.
He looked at me with incredulity and said, `Do you mean to
say that the Founder of your religion washed His students'
"`Yes,' I replied. The usually placid moon face with
shaved eyebrows and head wrinkled up in shock and amazement.
He was speechless, and so was I. I swallowed very hard
several times, and we were both caught up in the drama of
the scene. As I gazed at him, the look of incredulity on his
face changed to a reverent awe. Jesus, the Founder of
Christianity, had touched and washed dirty fishermen's feet!
After a few moments he gained control of himself and rose to
his feet. `I see now the essence of Christianity.'" (*5)
The Celebration of the Lord's Supper
Among Protestants the most common name for the Communion
service is the "Lord's Supper" (1 Cor. 11:20). Other names
are "the table of the Lord" (1 Cor. 10:21, RSV), "the
breaking of bread" (cf. Acts 20:7; 2:42),(*6) and the
Eucharist--a reference to the thanksgiving and blessing
aspect of the service (Matt. 26:26,27; 1 Cor. 10:16; 11:24).
The Lord's Supper is to be a joyful season, not a time
for sorrow. The preceding foot-washing service provides an
opportunity for self-examination, confession of sins,
reconciliation of differences, and forgiveness. Having
received the assurance of being cleansed by the blood of the
Saviour, believers are ready to enter into special communion
with their Lord. They turn to His table with joy, standing
in the saving light, not the shadow, of the cross, ready to
celebrate the redemptive victory of Christ.
The Meaning of the Lord's Supper
The Lord's Supper replaces the Passover festival of the
old covenant era. The Passover met its fulfillment when
Christ the Paschal Lamb gave His life. Before His death
Christ Himself instituted the replacement, the great
festival of spiritual Israel under the new covenant. Thus,
the roots of much of the symbolism of the Lord's Supper
extend back into the Passover service.
1. Commemoration of the deliverance from sin.
As the Passover festival commemorated Israel's
deliverance from slavery in Egypt, the Lord's Supper
commemorates deliverance from spiritual Egypt, the bondage
The Passover lamb's blood applied to the lintel and
doorposts protected the inhabitants from death; the
nourishment its flesh provided gave them the strength to
escape from Egypt (Ex. 12:3-8). So Christ's sacrifice brings
liberation from death; believers are saved through partaking
of both His body and blood (John 6:54). The Lord's Supper
proclaims that Christ's death on the cross provided our
salvation, provided forgiveness, and guaranteed eternal
Jesus said, "`Do this in remembrance of Me'" (1 Cor.
11:24). This ordinance emphasizes the substitutionary
dimension of Christ's atonement. "`This is My body,'" Jesus
said, "`which is broken for you'" (1 Cor. 11:24; cf. Isa.
53:4-12). At the cross the Innocent was substituted for the
guilty, the Righteous for the unrighteous. This magnanimous
act satisfied the demands of the law for the death of the
sinner, providing forgiveness, peace, and the assurance of
eternal life to repentant sinners. The cross removed our
condemnation and provided us with the robe of Christ's
righteousness and with the power to overcome evil.
a. The bread and the fruit of the vine.
Jesus used many metaphors to teach different truths about
Himself. He said, "`I am the door'" (John 10:7), "`I am the
way'" (John 14:6), "`I am the true vine'" (John 15:1), and
"`I am the bread of life'" (John 6:35). We cannot take any
of these expressions literally, for He is not present in
every door, way, or vine. Instead, they illustrate deeper
At the time He miraculously fed the 5,000, Jesus revealed
the deeper significance of His body and blood. As the true
bread, He said, "`Moses did not give you the bread from
heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and
gives life to the world.' Then they said to Him, `Lord, give
us this bread always.' And Jesus said to them, `I am the
bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he
who believes in me shall never thirst'" (John 6:32-35). He
offered His body and blood to satisfy the hunger and thirst
of our deepest needs and desires (John 6:50-54).
The Passover bread Jesus ate was unleavened, and the
fruit of the vine unfermented.(*7) Leaven (yeast), which
produces fermentation that causes bread to rise, was
considered a symbol of sin (1 Cor. 5:7,8), so it was unfit
to represent the Lamb "without blemish and without spot" (1
Peter 1:19).(*8) Only unleavened or "unfermented" bread
could symbolize the sinless body of Christ. Likewise only
the unspoiled fruit of the vine--the unfermented
wine--appropriately symbolizes the spotless perfection of
the cleansing blood of the Saviour.(*9)
b. The eating and drinking.
"`Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink
His blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats My flesh
and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him
up at the last day'" (John 6:53,54).
Eating Christ's flesh and drinking His blood is symbolic
language for the assimilation of the Word of God, through
which believers maintain communion with heaven and are
enabled to have spiritual life. He says, "`The words that I
speak to you are spirit, and they are life'" (John 6:63).
"`Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that
proceeds from the mouth of God'" (Matt. 4:4).
Believers feed on Christ, the bread of life, through
partaking of the Word of life--the Bible. With that Word
comes Christ's life-giving power. In the Communion service
also we partake of Christ by assimilating His Word through
the Holy Spirit. For this reason the preaching of the Word
accompanies each Lord's Supper.
Since we appropriate the benefits of Christ's atoning
sacrifice by faith, the Lord's Supper is much more than a
mere memorial meal. Participation in the Communion service
means a revitalization of our life through Christ's
sustaining power, providing us with life and joy. In short
the symbolism shows that "we are as dependent on Christ for
spiritual life as we are on food and drink for physical
During the Communion service we "bless" the cup (1 Cor.
10:16). This means that as Christ "gave thanks" for the cup
(Matt. 26:27), so we express gratitude for the blood of
2. Corporate communion with Christ.
In a world filled with strife and divisiveness, our
corporate participation in these celebrations contributes to
the unity and stability of the church, demonstrating true
communion with Christ and one another. Stressing this
communion, Paul said, "The cup of blessing which we bless,
is it not a participation [or communion] in the blood of
Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation
[or communion] in the body of Christ? Because there is one
bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of
the one bread" (1 Cor. 10:16,17, RSV).
"This is an allusion to the fact that the communion bread
is broken into many pieces, which are eaten by the
believers, and as all the pieces come from the same loaf, so
all the believers who partake of the communion service are
united in Him whose broken body is thus typified by the
broken bread. By partaking together of this ordinance,
Christians show publicly that they are united and belong to
one great family, whose head is Christ."(*11)
All church members should participate in this sacred
Communion because there, through the Holy Spirit, "Christ
meets His people, and energizes them by His presence. Hearts
and hands that are unworthy may even administer the
ordinances, yet Christ is there to minister to His children.
All who come with their faith fixed upon Him will be greatly
blessed. All who neglect these seasons of divine privilege
will suffer loss. Of them it may appropriately be said, `Ye
are not all clean.'"(*12)
We experience the strongest and deepest sense of
community at the Lord's table. Here we meet on common
ground, with the barriers that separate us broken down. Here
we realize that while in society there is much to divide us,
in Christ there is everything necessary to unite us. While
sharing the Communion cup Jesus committed the new covenant
to His disciples. Said He, "`Drink from it, all of you. For
this is My blood of the new covenant which is shed for many
for the remission of sins'" (Matt. 26:27,28; cf. Luke
22:20). As the old covenant was ratified by the blood of
animal sacrifices (Ex. 24:8), so the new covenant was
ratified by Christ's blood. At this ordinance believers
renew their pledge of loyalty to their Lord, recognizing
anew that they are a part of the amazing agreement by which,
in Jesus, God bound Himself to humanity. Being a part of
this covenant, they have something to celebrate. So the
Lord's Supper is both a memorial and a thanksgiving of the
sealing of the everlasting covenant of grace. The blessings
received are in proportion to the faith of the participants.
3. Anticipation of the Second Advent.
"For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup,
you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes" (1 Cor. 11:26).
The Communion service spans the interim between Calvary and
the Second Advent. It links the cross and the kingdom. It
joins the "already" and the "not yet," which is the essence
of the New Testament world view. It holds together the
Saviour's sacrifice and His second coming--salvation
provided and salvation consummated. It proclaims that Christ
is present through the Spirit till He comes visibly.
Christ's vow, "`I will not drink of this fruit of the
vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you
in My Father's kingdom'" (Matt. 26:29), is prophetic. It
directs our faith to a future celebration of the Communion
meal with our Saviour in the kingdom. The occasion is the
great festival of the "marriage supper of the Lamb"
In preparation for this event Christ instructed, "`Let
your waist be girded and your lamps burning; and you
yourselves be like men who wait for their master, when he
will return from the wedding, that when he comes and knocks
they may open to him immediately. Blessed are those servants
whom the master, when he comes, will find watching.
Assuredly, I say to you that he will gird himself and have
them sit down to eat, and will come and serve them'"
With His followers gathered at the banquet table Christ
will celebrate the Supper as He did in Jerusalem. For so
long He has waited for this occasion, and now all is ready.
He arises from His throne and steps forward to serve.
Amazement fills all. They feel totally unworthy of the honor
of having Christ serve them. They protest, saying, "Let us
serve!" But Christ quietly insists and has them sit down.
"Never was Christ truly greater on earth than on the
memorable occasion of the Lord's Supper, when He took the
place of a servant and humbled Himself. Never is Christ
greater in heaven than when He ministers to His
saints."(*13) This is the climactic expectation to which the
Lord's Supper points us, the joy of future glory through a
personal fellowship with Christ in His everlasting kingdom.
Qualifications for Participation
Two great ordinances serve the Christian faith--baptism
and the Lord's Supper. The former is the gateway into the
church, and the latter benefits those who are members.(*14)
Jesus administered Communion only to His professed
followers. The Communion service, therefore, is for
believing Christians. Children do not customarily
participate in these ordinances unless they are
The Bible instructs believers to celebrate this ordinance
with due reverence for the Lord, for the one who "eats this
bread and drinks this cup...in an unworthy manner will be
guilty of the body and blood of the Lord" (1 Cor. 11:27).
This "unworthy manner" consists "either in unbecoming
conduct (see verse 21) or in a lack of vital, active faith
in the atoning sacrifice of Christ."(*16) Such behavior
shows disrespect to the Lord and can be considered a
rejection of the Saviour and so a sharing in the guilt of
those who crucify Him.
Improper participation brings about God's displeasure.
Those eating and drinking in an unworthy manner eat and
drink "judgment" to themselves, "not discerning the Lord's
body" (1 Cor. 11:29). They fail to distinguish between
ordinary food and the consecrated emblems that symbolize
Christ's atoning death. "Believers must not treat the
ordinance as merely a commemorative ceremony of a happening
in history. It is that, and much more; it is a reminder of
what sin has cost God and what man owes to the Saviour. It
is also a means of keeping fresh in mind the believer's duty
to bear public witness to his faith in the atoning death of
the Son of God."(*17)
In view of these admonitions Paul counsels the believer
to "examine himself" before participating in the Lord's
Supper (1 Cor. 11:28). Before taking part believers should
prayerfully review their Christian experience, confessing
their sins and restoring severed relationships.
The experience of the Adventist pioneers reveals what a
blessing such an examination can provide: "When our numbers
were few, the celebration of the ordinances was made a most
profitable occasion. On the Friday before, every church
member endeavored to clear away everything that would tend
to separate him from his brethren and from God. Hearts were
closely searched; prayers for a divine revelation of hidden
sin were earnestly offered; confessions of over-reaching in
trade, of ill-advised words hastily spoken, of sin
cherished, were made. The Lord came near, and we were
greatly strengthened and encouraged."(*18)
This examination is a personal work. Others cannot do it,
for who can read the heart or distinguish the weeds from the
wheat? Christ, our example, rejected exclusiveness at the
Supper. Though open sin excludes persons from participating
(1 Cor. 5:11), Jesus Himself shared the meal with
Judas--outwardly a professed follower, inwardly a thief and
What marks those who are qualified to participate in the
Communion service, then, is the condition of the heart--a
full commitment to Christ and faith in His sacrifice, not
membership in any particular church. Consequently, believing
Christians of all churches can take part in the Lord's
Supper. All are invited to celebrate often this great
festival of the new covenant, and through their
participation to witness to their acceptance of Christ as a
1. See Robert Odom, "The First Celebration of the Ordinance
of the Lord's House," Ministry, Jan. 1953, p. 20; White,
Desire of Ages, pp. 643-646.
2. Ibid, p. 650.
3. There is a relationship between baptism and the Lord's
Supper. Baptism precedes church membership, while the foot
washing serves those who already are church members. During
this ordinance we may appropriately meditate on our
4. See C. Mervyn Maxwell, "A Fellowship of Forgiveness,"
Review and Herald, June 29, l961, pp. 6,7.
5. Jon Dybdahl, Missions: A Two-Way Street (Boise, ID:
Pacific Press, 1986), p. 28.
6. Though it is generally understood that in Acts 20:7 the
expression refers to the celebration of the Lord's Supper,
it does not exclusively refer to this ordinance. In Luke
24:35 it refers to a common daily meal.
7. On the assumption that the people of Bible times could
not have preserved grape juice for an extended period of
time in the warm climate of Israel from the time of the fall
grape harvest until the Passover in the spring it is taken
for granted that the Jews celebrated the Passover with
fermented wine. This assumption is unwarranted. Throughout
the ancient world juices were often preserved in an
unfermented state for extended periods through various
methods. One method was to concentrate the juice to a syrup
by boiling it. Stored in a cool place, this concentrate
would not ferment. Simply diluting it with water yielded a
non-alcoholic "sweet wine." See William Patton, Bible
Wines--Laws of Fermentation (Oklahoma City, OK: Sane Press,
n.d.), pp. 24-41; see also C.A. Christoforides, "More on
Unfermented Wine," Ministry, April 1955, p. 34; Lael O.
Caesar, "The Meaning of Yayin in the Old Testament"
(Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Andrews University, 1986), pp.
74-77; White, Desire of Ages, p. 653. The Passover wine
could also be made from raisins (F.C. Gilbert, Practical
Lessons From the Experience of Israel for the Church of
To-day [Nashville, TN: Southern Publ. Assn., 1972 ed.],
pp. 240, 241).
8. In this light it is not without significance that Christ
avoids using the usual word for wine (Greek, oinos) but
employs the phrase "the fruit of the vine" (Mark 14:25).
While oinos can refer to wine in its fermented, as well as
its unfermented, state, the fruit of the vine refers to the
pure juice--a fitting symbol of the blood of Christ, who
calls Himself the "True Vine" (John 15:1).
9. Yeast also causes the fermentation of grape juice. Yeast
spores, carried freely through the air or by insects, attach
themselves to the wax coat of the grape skins. When the
grapes are crushed the spores mix with the juice. At room
temperature the yeast cells multiply rapidly, fermenting the
wine (see Martin S. Peterson, Arnold H. Johnson, eds.,
Encyclopedia of Food Technology [Westport, CT.: Avi
Publishing Co., 1974], vol. 2, pp. 61-69; idem, Encyclopedia
of Food Science [Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Co., 1978],
vol. 3, p. 878).
10.R. Rice, Reign of God, p. 303.
11.SDA Bible Commentary, rev. ed., vol. 6, p. 746.
12.White, Desire of Ages, p. 656; cf. p. 661.
13.M.L. Andreasen, "The Ordinances of the Lord's House,"
Ministry, Jan. 1947, pp. 44,46.
14.Cf. White, Evangelism (Washington, D.C.: Review and
Herald, 1946), p. 273.
15.See e.g. Frank Holbrook, "For Members Only?" Ministry,
Feb. 1987, p. 13.
16.SDA Bible Commentary, rev. ed., vol. 6. p. 765.
18.White, Evangelism, p. 274; cf. SDA Bible Commentary,
rev. ed., vol. 6, p. 765.
19.The Bible does not specify how frequently the Lord's
Supper should be celebrated (see 1 Cor. 11:25,26).
Adventists have followed the practice of many Protestants to
have this ordinance four times a year. "In adopting the
quarterly plan, the early Advent believers felt that in
holding the service more frequently there would be the
danger of formality and failure to realize the solemnity of
the service." It seems to be a middle-of-the-road
decision--between celebrating it too often and leaving it
for too long a period, such as once a year (W.E. Read,
"Frequency of the Lord's Supper," Ministry, April 1955,