Seventh-day Adventists Believe...

There is a sanctuary in heaven, the true tabernacle which

the Lord set up and not man. In it Christ ministers on our

behalf, making available to believers the benefits of His

atoning sacrifice offered once for all on the cross. He was

inaugurated as our great High Priest and began His

intercessory ministry at the time of His ascension. In 1844,

at the end of the prophetic period of 2300 days, He entered

the second and last phase of His atoning ministry. It is a

work of investigative judgment which is part of the ultimate

disposition of all sin, typified by the cleansing of the

ancient Hebrew sanctuary on the Day of Atonement. In that

typical service the sanctuary was cleansed with the blood of

animal sacrifices, but the heavenly things are purified with

the perfect sacrifice of the blood of Jesus. The

investigative judgment reveals to heavenly intelligences who

among the dead are asleep in Christ and therefore, in Him,

are deemed worthy to have part in the first resurrection. It

also makes manifest who among the living are abiding in

Christ, keeping the commandments of God and the faith of

Jesus, and in Him, therefore, are ready for translation into

His everlasting kingdom. This judgment vindicates the

justice of God in saving those who believe in Jesus. It

declares that those who have remained loyal to God shall

receive the kingdom. The completion of this ministry of

Christ will mark the close of human probation before the

Second Advent.--Fundamental Beliefs, 23



The hour of the evening sacrifice arrives. The priest

stands in the court of the Temple in Jerusalem ready to

offer a lamb as sacrifice. As he raises the knife to kill

the victim, the earth convulses. Terrified, he drops the

knife and the lamb escapes. Over the din of the earthquake

he hears a loud ripping noise as an unseen hand rends the

veil of the Temple from top to bottom.

Across town, black clouds enshroud a cross. When Jesus,

the Passover Lamb of God, calls out, "It is finished!" He

dies for the sins of the world.

Type has met antitype. The very event the Temple services

have pointed to through the centuries has taken place. The

Saviour has completed His atoning sacrifice, and because

symbol has met reality, the rituals foreshadowing this

sacrifice have been superseded. Thus the rent veil, the

dropped knife, the escaped lamb.

But there is more to salvation history. It reaches beyond

the cross. Jesus' resurrection and ascension direct our

attention to the heavenly sanctuary, where, no longer the

Lamb, He ministers as priest. The once-for-all sacrifice has

been offered (Heb. 9:28); now He makes available to all the

benefits of this atoning sacrifice.

The Sanctuary in Heaven

God instructed Moses to build as His earthly dwelling

place (Ex. 25:8) the first sanctuary that functioned under

the first (old) covenant (Heb. 9:1). This was a place where

people were taught the way of salvation. About 400 years

later the permanent Temple in Jerusalem built by King

Solomon replaced Moses' portable tabernacle. After

Nebuchadnezzar destroyed that Temple, the exiles who

returned from Babylonian captivity built the second Temple,

which Herod the Great beautified and which the Romans

destroyed in A.D. 70.

The New Testament reveals that the new covenant also has

a sanctuary, one that is in heaven. In it Christ functions

as high priest "at the right hand of the throne of the

Majesty." This sanctuary is the "true tabernacle which the

Lord erected, and not man" (Heb. 8:1,2).(*1) At Mount Sinai

Moses was shown "`the pattern,'" copy, or miniature model of

the heavenly sanctuary (see Ex. 25:9, 40).(*2) Scripture

calls the sanctuary he built "the copies of the things in

the heavens," and its "holy places...copies of the true"

(Heb. 9:23,24). The earthly sanctuary and its services,

then, give us special insight into the role of the heavenly


Throughout, Scripture presumes the existence of a

heavenly sanctuary or temple (e.g., Ps. 11:4; 102:19; Micah

1:2,3).(*3) In vision, John the revelator saw the heavenly

sanctuary. He described it as "the temple of the tabernacle

of the testimony in heaven" (Rev. 15:5) and "the temple of heaven" (Rev. 11:19). There he saw the items that

the furnishings of the holy place of the earthly sanctuary

were modeled after, such as seven lampstands (Rev. 1:12) and

an altar of incense (Rev. 8:3). And he saw there also the

ark of the covenant which was like the one in the earthly

Holy of Holies (Rev. 11:19).

The heavenly altar of incense is located before God's

throne (Rev. 8:3; 9:13), which is in the heavenly temple of

God (Rev. 4:2; 7:15; 16:17). Thus the heavenly throne room

scene (Dan. 7:9, 10) is in the heavenly temple or sanctuary.

This is why the final judgments issue from God's temple

(Rev. 15:5-8).

It is clear, therefore, that the Scriptures present the

heavenly sanctuary as a real place (Heb. 8:2, NEB), not a

metaphor or abstraction.(*4) The heavenly sanctuary is the

primary dwelling place of God.

The Ministry in the Heavenly Sanctuary

The message of the sanctuary was a message of salvation.

God used its services to proclaim the gospel (Heb. 4:2). The

earthly sanctuary services were "a symbol [parabole in

Greek--a parable] for the present time then present"--until

Christ's first advent (Heb. 9:9,10, NASB). "Through symbol

and ritual God purposed by means of this gospel-parable to

focus the faith of Israel upon the sacrifice and priestly

ministry of the world's Redeemer, the `Lamb of God,' who

would take away the sin of the world (Gal. 3:23;

John 1:29)."(*5)

The sanctuary illustrated three phases of Christ's

ministry: (1) the substitutionary sacrifice, (2) the

priestly mediation, and (3) the final judgment.

The Substitutionary Sacrifice

Every sanctuary sacrifice symbolized Jesus' death for the

forgiveness of sin, revealing the truth that "without

shedding of blood there is no remission" (Heb. 9:22). Those

sacrifices illustrated the following truths:

1. God's judgment on sin.

Because sin is a deep-seated rebellion against all that

is good, pure, and true, it cannot be ignored. "The wages of

sin is death" (Rom. 6:23).

2. Christ's substitutionary death.

"All we like sheep have gone astray;...and the Lord has

laid on Him the iniquity of us all" (Isa. 53:6). "Christ

died for our sins according to the Scriptures"(1 Cor.15:3).

3. God provides the atoning sacrifice.

That sacrifice is "Christ Jesus, whom God set forth to be

a propitiation by His blood, through faith" (Rom. 3:24,25).

"For He [God] made Him [Christ] who knew no sin to be sin

for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in

Him" (2 Cor. 5:21). Christ the Redeemer took the judgment of

sin upon Himself. Therefore, "Christ was treated as we

deserve, that we might be treated as He deserves. He was

condemned for our sins, in which He had no share, that we

might be justified by His righteousness, in which we had no

share. He suffered the death which was ours, that we might

receive the life which was His. `With his stripes we are

healed' [Isa. 53:5]."(*6)

The sacrifices of the earthly sanctuary were repetitive.

Like a story, this ritual parable of redemption was told and

retold year after year. By contrast, the Antitype--the

actual atoning death of our Lord--took place at Calvary once

for all time (Heb. 9:26-28; 10:10-14).

On the cross the penalty for human sin was fully paid.

Divine justice was satisfied. From a legal perspective the

world was restored to favor with God (Rom. 5:18). The

atonement, or reconciliation, was completed on the cross as

foreshadowed by the sacrifices, and the penitent believer

can trust in this finished work of our Lord.(*7)

The Priestly Mediator

If the sacrifice atoned for sin, why was a priest


The priest's role drew attention to the need for

mediation between sinners and a holy God. Priestly mediation

reveals the seriousness of sin and the estrangement it

brought between a sinless God and a sinful creature. "Just

as every sacrifice foreshadowed Christ's death, so every

priest foreshadowed Christ's mediatorial ministry as high

priest in the heavenly sanctuary. `For there is one God, and

one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus'

(1 Tim. 2:5)."(*8)

1. Mediator and atonement.

The application of the atoning blood during the

mediatorial ministry of the priest was also seen as a form

of atonement (Lev. 4:35). The English term atonement implies

a reconciliation between two estranged parties. As the

atoning death of Christ reconciled the world to God, so His

mediation, or the application of the merits of His sinless

life and substitutionary death, makes reconciliation or

atonement with God a personal reality for the believer.

The Levitical priesthood illustrates the saving ministry

Christ has carried on since His death. Our High Priest,

serving "at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in

the heavens," functions as a "Minister of the sanctuary and

of the true tabernacle which the Lord erected, and not man"

(Heb. 8:1,2).

The heavenly sanctuary is the great command center where

Christ conducts His priestly ministry for our salvation. He

is able "to save to the uttermost those who come to God

through Him, since He ever lives to make intercession for

them" (Heb. 7:25). Therefore, we are encouraged to come

"boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and

find grace to help in time of need" (Heb. 4:16).

In the earthly sanctuary the priests carried out two

distinct ministries--a daily ministry in the holy place, or

first apartment (see chapter 4 of this book) and a yearly

ministry in the Most Holy Place, or Second Apartment. Those

services illustrated Christ's priestly ministry.(*9)

2. The ministry in the holy place.

The priestly ministry in the holy place of the sanctuary

could be characterized as a ministry of intercession,

forgiveness, reconciliation, and restoration. A continual

ministry, it provided constant access to God through the

priest.(*10) It symbolized the truth that the repentant

sinner has immediate and constant access to God through

Christ's priestly ministry as intercessor and mediator

(Eph. 2:18; Heb. 4:14-16; 7:25; 9:24; 10:19-22).

When the penitent sinner(*11) came to the sanctuary with

a sacrifice, he laid his hands on the head of the innocent

animal and confessed his sins. This act symbolically

transferred his sin and its penalty to the victim. As a

result, he obtained forgiveness of sins.(*12) As The Jewish

Encyclopedia states: "The laying of hands upon the victim's

head is an ordinary rite by which the substitution and

transfer of sins are effected." "In every sacrifice there is

the idea of substitution; the victim takes the place of the

human sinner."(*13)

The blood of the sin offering was applied in one of two

ways: a. If it was taken into the holy place, it was

sprinkled before the inner veil and placed on the horns of

the altar of incense (Lev. 4:6,7,17,18). b. If it was not

taken into the sanctuary, it was placed on the horns of the

altar of burnt offering in the court (Lev. 4:25,30). In that

case the priest ate part of the flesh of the sacrifice (Lev.

6:25,26,30). In either case, the participants understood

that their sins and accountability were transferred to the

sanctuary and its priesthood.(*14)

"In this ritual parable the sanctuary assumed the

penitent's guilt and accountability--for the time being at

least--when the penitent offered a sin offering, confessing

his errors. He went away forgiven, assured of God's

acceptance. So in the antitypical experience, when a sinner

is drawn in penitence by the Holy Spirit to accept Christ as

his Saviour and Lord, Christ assumes his sins and

accountability. He is freely forgiven. Christ is the

believer's Surety as well as his Substitute."(*15)

In type and antitype the holy place ministry primarily

centers on the individual. Christ's priestly ministry

provides for the sinner's forgiveness and reconciliation to

God (Heb. 7:25). "For Christ's sake God forgives the

repentant sinner, imputes to him the righteous character and

obedience of His Son, pardons his sins, and records his name

in the book of life as one of His children (Eph. 4:32; 1

John 1:9; 2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 3:24; Luke 10:20). And as the

believer abides in Christ, spiritual grace is mediated to

him by our Lord through the Holy Spirit so that he matures

spiritually and develops the virtues and graces that reflect

the divine character (2 Peter 3:18; Gal. 5:22,23)."(*16)

The ministry in the holy place brings about the

believer's justification and sanctification.

The Final Judgment

The events on the Day of Atonement illustrate the three

phases of God's final judgment. They are (1) the

"premillennial judgment" (or "the investigative judgment")

which is also called the "pre-Advent judgment"; (2) the

"millennial judgment"; and (3) the "executive judgment"

which takes place at the end of the millennium.

1. The ministry in the Most Holy Place.

The second division of the priestly ministry is primarily

sanctuary-centered, revolving around the cleansing of the

sanctuary and of God's people. This form of ministry, which

focused on the Most Holy Place of the sanctuary and which

only the high priest could perform, was limited to one day

of the religious year.

The cleansing of the sanctuary required two goats--the

Lord's goat and the scapegoat (Azazel in Hebrew).

Sacrificing the Lord's goat, the high priest made atonement

for "the Holy Place [actually the Most Holy Place in this

chapter], the tabernacle of meeting [the holy place], and

the altar [of the court]" (Lev. 16:20; cf. 16:16-18).

Taking the blood of the Lord's goat, which represented

the blood of Christ, into the Most Holy Place, the high

priest applied it directly, in the very presence of God, to

the mercy seat--the cover of the ark containing the Ten

Commandments--to satisfy the claims of God's holy law. His

action symbolized the immeasurable price Christ had to pay

for our sins, revealing how eager God is to reconcile His

people to Himself (cf. 2 Cor. 5:19). Then he applied this

blood to the altar of incense and to the altar of burnt

offering which on every day of the year had been sprinkled

with the blood representing confessed sins. The high priest

thereby made an atonement for the sanctuary, as well as the

people, and brought about cleansing of both (Lev. 16:16-20,


Next, representing Christ as mediator, the high priest

took upon himself the sins that had polluted the sanctuary

and transferred them to the live goat, Azazel, which was

then led away from the camp of God's people. This action

removed the sins of the people that had been symbolically

transferred from the repentant believers to the sanctuary

through the blood or flesh of the sacrifices of the daily

ministry of forgiveness. In this way the sanctuary was

cleansed and prepared for another year's work of ministry

(Lev. 16:16-20, 30-33).(*17) And thus all things were set

right between God and His people.(*18)

The Day of Atonement, then, illustrates the judgment

process that deals with the eradication of sin. The

atonement performed on this day "foreshadowed the final

application of the merits of Christ to banish the presence

of sin for all eternity and to accomplish the full

reconciliation of the universe into one harmonious

government under God."(*19)

2. Azazel, the scapegoat.

"The translation `scapegoat" (escape goat) of the Hebrew

azazel comes from the Vulgate caper emissarius, "goat sent

away" (Lev. 16:8, RSV, KJV, margin).(*20) A careful

examination of Leviticus 16 reveals that Azazel represents

Satan, not Christ, as some have thought. The arguments

supporting this interpretation are: "(1) the scapegoat was

not slain as a sacrifice and thus could not be used as a

means of bringing forgiveness. For `without shedding of

blood is no remission' (Heb. 9:22); (2) the sanctuary was

entirely cleansed by the blood of the Lord's goat before the

scapegoat was introduced into the ritual (Lev. 16:20); (3)

the passage treats the scapegoat as a personal being who is

the opposite of, and opposed to, God (Leviticus 16:8 reads

literally, `One to Yahweh and the other to Azazel').

Therefore, in the setting of the sanctuary parable, it is

more consistent to see the Lord's goat as a symbol of Christ

and the scapegoat--Azazel--as a symbol of Satan."(*21)

3. The different phases of the judgment.

The scapegoat ritual on the Day of Atonement pointed

beyond Calvary to the final end of the sin problem--the

banishment of sin and Satan. The "full accountability for

sin will be rolled back upon Satan, its originator and

instigator. Satan, and his followers, and all the effects of

sin, will be banished from the universe by destruction.

Atonement by judgment will, therefore, bring about a fully

reconciled and harmonious universe (Eph. 1:10). This is the

objective that the second and final phase of Christ's

priestly ministry in the heavenly sanctuary will

accomplish."(*22) This judgment will see God's final

vindication before the universe.(*23)

The Day of Atonement portrayed the three phases of the

final judgment:

a. The removal of sins from the sanctuary relates to the

first, or pre-Advent, investigative phase of the judgment.

It "focuses on the names recorded in the Book of Life just

as the Day of Atonement focused on the removal of the

confessed sins of the penitent from the sanctuary. False

believers will be sifted out; the faith of true believers

and their union with Christ will be reaffirmed before the

loyal universe, and the records of their sins will be

blotted out."(*24)

b. The banishment of the scapegoat to the wilderness

symbolizes Satan's millennial imprisonment on this desolated

earth, which begins at the Second Advent and coincides with

the second phase of the final judgment, which takes place in

heaven (Rev. 20:4; 1 Cor. 6:1-3). This millennial judgment

involves a review of the judgment on the wicked and will

benefit the redeemed by giving them insight into God's

dealings with sin and those sinners who were not saved. It

will answer all the questions the redeemed may have about

God's mercy and justice (see chapter 26).

c. The clean camp symbolizes the results of the third, or

executive, phase of the judgment, when fire destroys the

wicked and cleanses the earth (Rev. 20:11-15; Matt. 25:31-46

2 Peter 3:7-13; see chapter 26 of this book).

The Heavenly Sanctuary in Prophecy

In the above discussion we focused on the sanctuary from

the type-antitype perspective. Now we will look at it in


The Anointing of the Heavenly Sanctuary

The 70-week prophecy of Daniel 9 pointed to the

inauguration of Christ's priestly ministry in the heavenly

sanctuary. One of the last events to take place during the

490 years was the anointing of the "Most Holy" (Dan. 9:24;

see chapter 4). The Hebrew qodesh qodeshim that has been

translated as "Most Holy" literally means Holy of Holies. It

would therefore be better to translate the phrase "to anoint

a Holy of Holies" or "to anoint the most holy place" (NASB).

As during the inauguration of the earthly sanctuary it

was anointed with holy oil to consecrate it for its

services, so in its inauguration the heavenly sanctuary was

to be anointed to consecrate it for Christ's intercessory

ministry. With His ascension soon after His death (Dan.

9:27)(*25) Christ began His ministry as our high priest and


The Cleansing of the Heavenly Sanctuary

Speaking of the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary, the

book of Hebrews says, "Almost all things are purged with

blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission.

Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in

the heavens [the earthly sanctuary] should be purified with

these [the blood of animals], but the heavenly things

themselves [the heavenly sanctuary] with better sacrifices

than these"--the precious blood of Christ (Heb. 9:22,23).

Various commentators have noted this Biblical teaching.

Henry Alford remarked that "the heaven itself needed, and

obtained, purification by the atoning blood of Christ."(*26)

B.F. Westcott commented, "It may be said that even `heavenly

things,' so far as they embody the conditions of man's

future life, contracted by the Fall something which required

cleansing." It was Christ's blood, he said, that was

available "for the cleansing of the heavenly archetype of

the earthly sanctuary."(*27)

As the sins of God's people were by faith placed upon the

sin offering and then symbolically transferred to the

earthly sanctuary, so under the new covenant the confessed

sins of the penitent are by faith placed on Christ.(*28)

And as during the typical Day of Atonement the cleansing

of the earthly sanctuary removed the sins accumulated there,

so the heavenly sanctuary is cleansed by the final removal

of the record of sins in the heavenly books. But before the

records are finally cleared, they will be examined to

determine who through repentance and faith in Christ is

entitled to enter His eternal kingdom. The cleansing of the

heavenly sanctuary, therefore, involves a work of

investigation or judgment(*29) that fully reflects the

nature of the Day of Atonement as a day of judgment.(*30)

This judgment, which ratifies the decision as to who will be

saved and who will be lost, must take place before the

Second Advent, for at that time Christ returns with His

reward "`to give to every one according to his work'" (Rev.

22:12). Then, also, Satan's accusations will be answered

(cf. Rev. 12:10).

All who have truly repented and by faith claimed the

blood of Christ's atoning sacrifice have received pardon.

When their names come up in this judgment and they are found

clothed with the robe of Christ's righteousness, their sins

are blotted out and they are accounted worthy of eternal

life (Luke 20:35). "`He who overcomes,'" Jesus said, "`shall

be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his

name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name

before My Father and before His angels'" (Rev. 3:5).

The prophet Daniel reveals the nature of this

investigative judgment. While the apostate power symbolized

by the little horn carries on its blasphemous and

persecuting work against God and His people on earth (Dan.

7:8,20,21,25), thrones are set in place and God presides

over the final judgment. This judgment takes place in the

throne room of the heavenly sanctuary and is attended by

multitudes of heavenly witnesses. When the court is seated,

the books are opened, signaling the beginning of an

investigative procedure (Dan. 7:9,10). It is not until after

this judgment that the apostate power is destroyed

(Dan. 7:11).(*31)

The Time of the Judgment

Both Christ and the Father are involved in the

investigative judgment. Before He returns to the earth on

the "clouds of heaven," Christ as the "`Son of Man'" comes

"`with the clouds of heaven'" to the "`Ancient of Days,'"

God the Father, and stands before Him (Dan. 7:13). Ever

since His ascension Christ has functioned as high priest,

our intercessor before God (Heb. 7:25). But at this time He

comes to receive the kingdom (Dan. 7:14).

1. The eclipse of Christ's priestly ministry.

Daniel 8 tells us about the controversy between good and

evil and God's final triumph. This chapter reveals that

between the inauguration of Christ's high-priestly ministry

and the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary an earthly power

would obscure Christ's ministry.

The ram in this vision represented the Medo-Persian

empire (Dan. 8:2)--the two horns, the higher coming up last,

clearly depicting its two phases, the dominant Persian part

of the kingdom emerging last. As Daniel predicted, this

eastern kingdom did extend its power "westward, northward,

and southward," becoming "great" (Dan. 8:4).

The male goat coming from the west symbolized Greece,

with the great horn, its "`first king,'" representing

Alexander the Great (Dan. 8:21). Coming "`from the west'"

Alexander swiftly defeated Persia. Then, within a few years

of his death, his empire was divided into "`four kingdoms'"

(Dan. 8:8, 22)--the kingdoms of Cassander, Lysimachus,

Seleucus, and Ptolemy.

At "`the latter time of their kingdom'" (Dan. 8:23), in

other words, toward the end of the divided Greek empire "a

little horn" would arise (Dan. 8:9). Some consider Antiochus

Epiphanes, a Syrian King who ruled over Palestine for a

short period in the second century B.C., the fulfillment of

this part of the prophecy. Others, including many of the

Reformers, have identified this little horn as Rome in both

its pagan and papal phases. This last interpretation fits

exactly the specifications Daniel gave, whereas the other

does not.(*32) Notice the following points:

a. The little horn power extends from the fall of the Greek

empire till the "`time of the end'" (Dan. 8:17). Only Rome,

pagan and papal, meets these time specifications.

b. The prophecies of Daniel 2, 7, and 8 parallel each other

(see prophetic parallel chart, page 347 of this book). The

four metals of the image of Daniel 2 and the four beasts of

Daniel 7 represent the same world empires: Babylon,

Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. Both the feet of iron and

clay and the ten horns of the fourth beast represent the

divisions of Rome; those divided states were to continue to

exist until the Second Advent. Note that both prophecies

point to Rome as the successor of Greece and as the last

empire before the Second Advent and final judgment. The

little horn in Daniel 8 fits in the same slot; it follows

Greece and is supernaturally destroyed or "`broken without

human hand'" (Dan. 8:25; cf. Dan. 2:34).(*33)

c. Medo-Persia is called "great," Greece is described as

being "very great," and the little horn as "exceedingly

great" (Dan. 8:4,8,9). Rome, one of the greatest world

empires, fits this specification.

d. Only Rome expanded its empire to the south (Egypt), the

east (Macedonia and Asia Minor), and "the Glorious Land"

(Palestine), just as the prophecy predicted (Dan. 8:9).

e. Rome stood up against the "Prince of the host," the

"Prince of princes'" (Dan. 8:11, 25), who is none other than

Jesus Christ. "Against Him and His people, as well as His

sanctuary, the power of Rome fought a most amazing warfare.

This description covers both the pagan and papal phases of

Rome. While pagan Rome withstood Christ and did indeed

destroy the Temple in Jerusalem, papal Rome effectively

obscured the priestly, mediatorial ministry of Christ in

behalf of sinners in the heavenly sanctuary (see Heb. 8:1,2)

by substituting a priesthood that purports to offer

forgiveness through the mediation of men."(*34) (See chapter

12). This apostate power would be quite successful, for "he

cast truth down to the ground. He did all this and

prospered" (Dan. 8:12).

2. The time of restoration, cleansing, and judgment.

God would not permit the eclipse of the truth of Christ's

high-priestly ministry to go on indefinitely. Through

faithful, God-fearing men and women He revived His cause.

The Reformation's partial rediscovery of Christ's role as

our Mediator caused a great revival within the Christian

world. Yet there was still more truth to be revealed about

Christ's heavenly ministry.

Daniel's vision indicated that Christ's role as our high

priest would be made especially prominent toward "`the time

of the end'" (Dan. 8:17), when He would begin His special

work of cleansing and judgment in addition to His continual

intercessory ministry (Heb. 7:25).(*35) The vision specifies

when Christ was to begin this antitypical day of atonement

ministry--the work of the investigative judgment (Dan. 7)

and cleansing of the sanctuary--"Unto two thousand and three

hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed" (Dan.

8:14, KJV).(*36) Because the vision refers to the time of

the end, the sanctuary it speaks of cannot be the earthly

sanctuary--for it was destroyed in A.D. 70. The prophecy

must therefore refer to the new covenant sanctuary in

heaven--the place where Christ ministers for our salvation.

What are the 2300 days or "2,300 evenings-mornings," as

the original Hebrew reads?(*37) According to Genesis 1, an

"evening and morning" is a day. As we have seen in chapters

4 and 12 of this book, a time period in symbolic prophecy is

also symbolic: a prophetic day represents a year. So, as

many Christians throughout the centuries have believed, the

2300 days of Daniel 8 signify 2300 literal years.(*38)

a. Daniel 9 the key to unlocking Daniel 8.

God commissioned the angel Gabriel to make Daniel

"`understand the vision'" (Dan. 8:16). But its impact was so

shocking that Daniel became ill and Gabriel had to

discontinue his explanation. At the close of the chapter

Daniel remarked: "I was appalled by the vision and did not

understand it" (Dan. 8:27, RSV).

Because of this interruption, Gabriel had to delay his

explanation of the time period--the only aspect of the

vision he had not yet explained. Daniel 9 describes his

return to complete this responsibility. Daniel 8 and 9,

then, are connected, the latter being the key to unlocking

the mystery of the 2300 days.(*39) When Gabriel appeared he

said to Daniel: "`I have come forth to give you skill to

understand....therefore consider the matter, and understand

the vision'" (Dan. 9:23). Here he refers back to the vision

of the 2300 days. His desire to explain the time elements of

the vision of Daniel 8 makes clear why he introduces his

explanation with the 70-weeks prophecy.

The 70 weeks, or 490 years, were "`determined,'" or

"decreed" (RSV, NASB, NIV), for the Jews and Jerusalem (Dan.

9:24). The underlying Hebrew verb is chathak. Although this

verb is used only once in the Scriptures, its meaning can be

understood from other Hebrew sources.(*40) The well-known

Hebrew-English dictionary by Gesenius states that properly

it means "to cut" or "to divide."(*41)



With this background, Gabriel's comments are very

revealing. He tells Daniel that 490 years were to be cut off

from the longer period of 2300 years. As the starting point

for the 490 years, Gabriel points to "`the going forth of

the command to restore and build Jerusalem'" (Dan. 9:25),

which took place in 457 B.C., the seventh year of Artaxerxes

(see chapter 4).(*42)

The 490 years ended in A.D. 34. When we cut off 490 years

from the 2300 years, we are left with 1810 years. Since the

2300 years were to extend 1810 years beyond A.D. 34, they

reach to the year 1844.(*43)

b. Toward a fuller understanding of Christ's ministry.

During the early part of the nineteenth century many

Christians--including Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists,

Lutherans, Anglicans, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and

Disciples of Christ--gave intensive study to the prophecy of

Daniel 8.(*44) All these Bible students expected some very

significant events to take place at the end of the 2300

years. Depending on their understanding of the little horn

power and the sanctuary, they anticipated this prophetic

period to terminate in the purification of the church, the

liberation of Palestine and Jerusalem, the return of the

Jews, the fall of the Turkish or Muslim power, the

destruction of the papacy, the restoration of true worship,

the beginning of the earthly millennium, the day of

judgment, the cleansing of the earth by fire, or the Second


None of these predictions materialized, and all who

believed them were disappointed. Yet the severity of their

disappointment was in proportion to the nature of the

predicted event. Obviously the disappointment of those who

expected Christ to return in 1844 was more traumatic than

that of those who looked for the return of the Jews to


As a result of their disappointment, many gave up the

study of prophecy or turned from the historicist method of

interpreting prophecy, which had led to these

conclusions.(*47) Some, however, continued to study this

prophecy and the subject of the sanctuary with much prayer

and intensity, continuing to look to Christ's ministry in

the heavenly sanctuary on their behalf. Rich new insights

into that ministry rewarded their efforts. They discovered

that the historic prophetic faith of the early church and of

the Reformation was still valid. The prophetic time

calculations were indeed correct. The 2300 years had ended

in 1844. Their mistake--and that of all interpreters of that

time--was in their understanding of what event was to take

place at the end of that prophetic period. New light from

Christ's sanctuary ministry turned their disappointment into

hope and joy.(*48)

Their study of Biblical teachings on the sanctuary

revealed that in 1844 Christ came to the Ancient of Days and

began the final phase of His high-priestly ministry in the

heavenly sanctuary. This ministry was the antitype of the

Day of Atonement cleansing of the sanctuary that Daniel 7

depicts as the pre-Advent investigative judgment.

This new insight into Christ's heavenly ministry "is not

a departure from the historic Christian faith. It is,

instead, the logical completion and inevitable consummation

of that faith. It is simply the last-day appearance and

fulfillment of the prophesied emphasis characterizing the

everlasting the closing segment of its witness

to the world."(*49)

The Significance Within the Great Controversy

The prophecies of Daniel 7 and 8 disclose the broader

perspectives of the final outcome of the great controversy

between God and Satan.

The Vindication of God's Character

Through the activities of the little horn, Satan has

attempted to challenge God's authority. The acts of that

power have reproached and trampled upon the heavenly

sanctuary, the center of God's government. Daniel's visions

point to a pre-Advent judgment in which God will secure a

verdict of condemnation upon the little horn, and thus upon

Satan himself. In the light of Calvary all Satan's

challenges will be refuted. All come to understand and agree

that God is right; that He has no responsibility for the sin

problem. His character will emerge unassailable, and His

government of love will be reaffirmed.

The Vindication of God's People

While the judgment brings condemnation upon the apostate

little horn power, it is "`made in favor of the saints of

the Most High'" (Dan. 7:22). Indeed, this judgment not only

vindicates God before the universe, but His people, as well.

Though the saints have been despised and persecuted for

their faith in Christ as they may have been throughout the

centuries, this judgment puts things right. God's people

will realize Christ's promise: "`Therefore whoever confesses

Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who

is in heaven'" (Matt. 10:32; cf. Luke 12:8,9; Rev. 3:5).

The Judgment and Salvation

Does the investigative judgment jeopardize the salvation

of those who believe in Jesus Christ? Not at all. Genuine

believers live in union with Christ, trusting in Him as

intercessor (Rom. 8:34). Their assurance is in the promise

that "we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the

righteous" (1 John 2:1).

Why then a pre-Advent investigative judgment? This

judgment is not for the benefit of the Godhead. It is

primarily for the benefit of the universe, answering the

charges of Satan and giving assurance to the unfallen

creation that God will allow into His kingdom only those who

truly have been converted. So God opens the books of record

for impartial inspection (Dan. 7:9,10).

Human beings belong to one of three classes: (1) the

wicked, who reject God's authority; (2) genuine believers,

who, trusting in the merits of Christ through faith, live in

obedience to God's law; and (3) those who appear to be

genuine believers but are not.

The unfallen beings can readily discern the first class.

But who is a genuine believer and who is not? Both groups

are written in the book of life, which contains the names of

all who have ever entered God's service (Luke 10:20; Phil.

4:3; Dan. 12:1; Rev. 21:27). The church itself contains

genuine and false believers, the wheat and the tares

(Matt. 13:28-30).

God's unfallen creatures are not omniscient; they cannot

read the heart. "So a judgment is needed--before the second

coming of Christ--to sift the true from the false and to

demonstrate to the interested universe God's justice in

saving the sincere believer. The issue is with God and the

universe, not between God and the true child. This calls for

the opening of the books of record, the disclosing of those

who have professed faith and whose names have been entered

into the book of life."(*50)

Christ depicted this judgment in His parable of the

wedding guests who responded to the generous gospel

invitation. Because not all who choose to be Christian are

genuine disciples, the king comes to inspect the guests and

see who has the wedding garment. This garment represents

"the pure, spotless character which Christ's true followers

will possess. To the church is given `that she should be

arrayed in fine linen, clean and white,' `not having spot,

or wrinkle, or any such thing,' (Rev. 19:8; Eph. 5:27). The

fine linen, says the Scripture, `is the righteousness of

saints' (Rev. 19:8). It is the righteousness of Christ, His

own unblemished character, that through faith is imparted to

all who receive Him as their personal Saviour."(*51) When

the king inspects the guests, only those who have put on the

robe of Christ's righteousness so generously offered in the

gospel invitation are accepted as genuine believers. Those

who profess to be followers of God but who are living in

disobedience and are not covered by Christ's righteousness

will be blotted from the book of life (see Ex. 32:33).

The concept of an investigative judgment of all who

profess faith in Christ does not contradict the Biblical

teaching of salvation by faith through grace. Paul knew that

one day he would face the judgment. He therefore expressed

the desire to "be found in Him, not having my own

righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is

through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God

by faith" (Phil. 3:9). All who are united with Christ are

assured of salvation. In the pre-Advent phase of the last

judgment genuine believers, those who have a saving

relationship with Christ, are affirmed before the unfallen


Christ, however, cannot assure salvation for those who

only profess to be Christians on the basis of how many good

deeds they have performed (see Matt. 7:21-23). The heavenly

records, therefore, are more than just a tool for sifting

the genuine from the false. They also are the foundation for

confirming the genuine believers before the angels.

"Far from robbing the believer of his assurance with

Christ, the doctrine of the sanctuary sustains it. It

illustrates and clarifies to his mind the plan of salvation.

His penitent heart rejoices to grasp the reality of Christ's

substitutionary death for his sins as prefigured in its

sacrifices. Furthermore, his faith reaches upward to find

its meaning in a living Christ, his priestly Advocate in the

very presence of the holy God."(*52)

A time to Be Ready

God intends this good news of Christ's closing ministry

of salvation to go to all the world before Christ's return.

Central to this message is the everlasting gospel, which is

to be proclaimed with a sense of urgency because "`the hour

of His [God's] judgment has come'" (Rev. 14:7). This call

warns the world that God's judgment is taking place now.

Today we are living in the great antitypical day of

atonement. As the Israelites were called to afflict their

souls on that day (Lev. 23:27), so God calls upon all His

people to experience heartfelt repentance. All who wish to

retain their names in the book of life must make things

right with God and their fellowmen during this time of God's

judgment (Rev. 14:7).

Christ's work as high priest is nearing its completion.

The years of human probation(*53) are slipping away. No one

knows just when God's voice will proclaim, "It is finished."

"`Take heed,'" Christ said, "`watch and pray, for you do not

know when the time is'" (Mark 13:33).

Although we live in the awesome time of the antitypical

day of atonement, we have no need to fear. Jesus Christ, in

His twofold capacity of sacrifice and priest, ministers in

the heavenly sanctuary in our behalf. Because "we have a

great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus

the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. For we do

not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our

weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet

without sin. Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of

grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in

time of need" (Heb. 4:14-16).


1. The book of Hebrews reveals a real sanctuary in heaven.

In Hebrews 8:2 the word "sanctuary" is a translation of the

Greek ta hagia, plural form of the holy place (thing).

Additional usages of this plural term can be found, e.g., in

Hebrews 9:8,12,24,25; 10:19; 13:11. The various translations

give the impression that Christ ministers only in the Most

Holy Place or the holy place (see KJV, NKJV, NIV, and NASB),

not the sanctuary. This is because the translators consider

ta hagia an intensive plural, translatable as a singular.

But a study of the Septuagint and Josephus shown that the

term ta hagia does consistently refer to "holy things" or

the "holy places"--i.e., to the sanctuary itself. It is the

general term used to refer to the entire sanctuary, with its

holy and Most Holy places.

That Hebrews uses ta hagia to refer to the entire

sanctuary has strong exegetical support in the epistle

itself. The first use of ta hagia in Hebrews occurs in 8:2

and is in apposition to "the true tent." Since it is clear

from 8:5 that "tent" (skene) indicates the entire sanctuary,

in Hebrews 8:2 ta hagia likewise must designate the entire

heavenly sanctuary. There is no reason to translate the

plural ta hagia in Hebrews as the Most Holy Place. In most

cases the context favors the translation of ta hagia as "the

sanctuary" ("Christ and His High Priestly Ministry,"

Ministry, October 1980, p. 49).

From their study of the earthly sanctuary and ta hagia,

the Adventist pioneers concluded that the heavenly sanctuary

also has two apartments. This understanding was basic to the

development of their teachings on the sanctuary (Damsteegt,

"The Historical Development of the Sanctuary Doctrine in

Early Adventist Thought" [unpublished manuscript, Biblical

Research Institute of the General Conference of Seventh-day

Adventists, 1983]; cf. White, Great Controversy, pp.

413-415, 423-432).

2. See The SDA Bible Commentary, rev. ed., Ellen G. White

Comments, vol. 6, p. 1082.

3. Ancient Jewish writings reveal that some rabbis also

believed in a real heavenly sanctuary. Commenting on Exodus

15:17, one rabbi said, "The [position of the terrestrial]

Sanctuary corresponds with that of the heavenly Sanctuary

and the [position of the] ark with that of the heavenly

Throne" (Midrash Rabbah. Numbers, repr. ed. [London: Soncino

Press, 1961], vol. 1, chap. 4, sec. 13, p. 110. Brackets in

original). Another rabbi quoted in the Babylonian Talmud

spoke about "the heavenly and the earthly Temple"

(Sanhedrin, 99b, I. Epstein, ed. [London: Soncino Press,

1969]). Still another commented: "There is no difference of

opinion that the sanctuary below is the counterpart of the

sanctuary above" (Leon Nemoy, ed., The Midrash on Psalms,

trans. by William G. Braude [New Haven, Conn.: Yale

University Press, 1959], Psalm 30, sec. 1, p. 386).

4. The book of Hebrews depicts a real sanctuary in heaven:

"The reality of the heavenly sanctuary is further underlined

by the adjective `true' in Hebrews 8:2. The heavenly

sanctuary is the `true' or better `real' one. The Greek term

used here and in 9:24 where it is also applied to the

heavenly sphere is alethinos. This Greek adjective means

`real,' as opposed to merely `apparent.' On account of its

classical distinction to the Greek adjective alethes, which

means `true,' as opposed to `false,' the adjective

alethinos, which is used twice of the heavenly sanctuary,

points seemingly unequivocally to the actual reality of a

sanctuary in heaven. As God is described as `real' in

John 17:3 and consistently by Paul, as for example, in

1 Thessalonians 1:9, with the usage of alethinos, so other

entities possess reality insofar as they are associated with

His reality. As the heavenly sanctuary is associated with

God's reality, so it is as real as God is real" (Hasel,

"Christ's Atoning Ministry in Heaven," Ministry, January

1976, special insert, p. 21c).

5. Holbrook, "Sanctuary of Salvation," Ministry, January

1983, p. 14.

6. White, The Desire of Ages, p. 25.

7. Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," Journal of Adventist

Education, October-November 1983, p. 27.

8. Ibid., p. 28.

9. "As Christ's ministration was to consist of two great

divisions, each occupying a period of time and having a

distinctive place in the heavenly sanctuary, so the typical

ministration consisted of two divisions, the daily and

yearly service, and to each a department of the tabernacle

was devoted" (White, Patriarchs and Prophets, p. 357).

10.In the daily morning and evening sacrifice the priest

represents the whole nation.

11.The father of the family represented his wife and

children, who did not offer sacrifices.

12.See, e.g., Angel M. Rodriguez, "Sacrificial Substitution

and the Old Testament Sacrifices," in Sanctuary and the

Atonement, pp. 134-156; A.M. Rodriguez, "Transfer of Sin in

Leviticus," in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of

Prophecy, ed. F.B. Holbrook (Washington, DC.: Biblical

Research Institute of the General Conference of Seventh-day

Adventists, 1986), pp. 169-197.

13."Atonement, Day of" in The Jewish Encyclopedia, ed.

Isidore Singer (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1903), p.

286. See also Hasel, "Studies in Biblical Atonement I:

Continual Sacrifice, Defilement//Cleansing and Sanctuary,"

in Sanctuary and the Atonement. pp. 97-99.

14.Hasel, "Studies in Biblical Atonement I," pp. 99-107;

Alberto R. Treiyer, "The Day of Atonement as Related to the

Contamination and Purification of the Sanctuary," 70 Weeks,

Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy, p. 253.

15.Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," p. 27.

16.Ibid., p. 29.

17.See, e.g., Hasel, "Studies in Biblical Atonement II: The

Day of Atonement," in Sanctuary and Atonement, pp. 115-125.

18.Cf. Hasel, "The `Little Horn,' the Saints, and the

Sanctuary in Daniel 8," in Sanctuary and Atonement, pp.

206,207; treiyer, "Day of Atonement," pp. 252,253.

19.Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," p. 29.

20.Cf. "Azazel," SDA Bible Dictionary, rev. ed., p. 102.

21.Holbrook, "Sanctuary of Salvation," p. 16. Throughout

the centuries Bible expositors have come to similar

conclusions. In the Septuagint azazel is rendered

apopompaios, a Greek word for a malign deity. Ancient Jewish

writers and the early Church Fathers referred to him as the

devil (SDA Encyclopedia, rev. ed., pp. 1291, 1292).

Nineteenth-and twentieth-century expositors with similar

views include Samuel M. Zwemer, William Milligan, James

Hastings, and William Smith, of the Presbyterian Church;

E.W. Hengstenberg, Elmer Flack, and H.C. Alleman, of the

Lutheran Church; William Jenks, Charles Beecher, and F.N.

PeLoubet, of the Congregational Church; John M'Clintock and

James Strong, of the Methodist Church; James M. Gray, of the

Reformed Episcopal Church; J.B. Rotherhorn, of the Disciples

of Christ; and George A. Barton, of the Society of Friends.

Many others have expressed similar views (Questions on

Doctrine, pp. 394,395).

If Azazel represents Satan, how can Scripture (see Lev.

16:10) connect him with the atonement? As the high priest,

after having cleansed the sanctuary, placed the sins on

Azazel, who was forever removed from God's people, so

Christ, after having cleansed the heavenly sanctuary, will

place the confessed and forgiven sins of His people on

Satan, who will then be forever removed from the saved. "How

fitting that the closing act of the drama of God's dealing

with sin should be a returning upon the head of Satan of all

the sin and guilt that, issuing from him originally, once

brought such tragedy to the lives of those now freed of sin

by Christ's atoning blood. Thus the cycle is completed, the

drama ended. Only when Satan, the instigator of all sin, is

finally removed can it truly be said that sin is forever

blotted out of God's universe. In this accommodated sense we

may understand that the scapegoat has a part in the

`atonement' (Lev. 16:10). With the righteous saved, the

wicked `cut off,' and Satan no more, then, not till then,

will the universe be in a state of perfect harmony as it was

originally before sin entered" (The SDA Bible Commentary,

rev. ed., vol. 1, p. 778).

22.Holbrook, "Sanctuary of Salvation," p. 16.

23.Treiyer, "Day of Atonement," p. 245.

24.Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," p. 30.

25.See chapter 4

26.Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, 3rd ed. (London:

Deighton, Bell and Co., 1864), vol. 4, p. 179.

27.B.F. Westcott, Epistle to the Hebrews, pp. 272,271.

28.By placing these confessed sins on Christ, they are

"transferred, in fact, to the heavenly sanctuary" (White,

The Great Controversy, p. 421).

29.This judgment deals with the professed followers of God.

"In the typical service only those who had come before God

with confession and repentance, and whose sins, through the

blood of the sin offering, were transferred to the

sanctuary, had a part in the service of the Day of

Atonement. So in the great day of final atonement and

investigative judgment the only cases considered are those

of the professed people of God. The judgment of the wicked

is a distinct and separate work, and takes place at a later

period. `Judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it

first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey

not the gospel?' (1 Peter 4:17)" (ibid., p. 480).

30.Jewish tradition has long portrayed Yom Kippur as a day

of judgment, a day when God sits on His throne and judges

the world. The books of records are opened, everyone passes

before Him, and their destiny is sealed. See "Atonement, Day

of," The Jewish Encyclopedia; Morris Silverman, comp. and

ed., High Holyday Prayer Book (Hartford, Conn.: Prayer Book

Press, 1951), pp. 147,164. Yom Kippur brings also comfort

and assurance to the believers, for it is "the day on which

the fearful anticipation of a judgment to come finally gives

place to the confident affirmation that God does not

condemn, but will abundantly pardon those who turn to him in

penitence and humility" (William W. Simpson, Jewish Prayer

and Worship [New York: Seabury Press, 1965], pp. 57,58).

31.See Arthur J. Ferch, "The Judgment Scene in Daniel 7,"

in Sanctuary and Atonement, pp. 163-166, 169.

32.On the problems of the Antiochus interpretation in

Daniel, see W.H. Shea, Selected Studies on Prophetic

Interpretation, pp. 25-55.

33.Shea, "Unity of Daniel," in Symposium on Daniel, ed.

F.B. Holbrook (Washington, DC.: Biblical Research Institute

of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1986),

pp. 165-219.

34."The Amazing Prophecies of Daniel and Revelation," These

Times, April 1979, p. 18. See also Maxwell, God Cares,

vol. 1, pp. 166-173; and chapter 12.

35.In the earthly sanctuary, on the Day of Atonement the

high priest entered the Most Holy Place, ceasing his

ministry in the first apartment. "So when Christ entered the

holy of holies to perform the closing work of the atonement,

He ceased His ministration in the first apartment. But when

the ministration in the first apartment ended, the

ministration in the second apartment began. So Christ had

only completed one part of His work as our intercessor, to

enter upon another portion of the work, and He still pleaded

His blood before the Father in behalf of sinners"

(White, The Great Controversy, pp. 428,429).

36.The translations of the KJV and NKJV render the Hebrew

term nitsdaq, "shall be cleansed." The New American Bible

translates it as "shall be purified." The term "cleansed" is

also found in the earliest English translations such as the

Bishop's Bible (A.D. 1566), the Geneva Bible (A.D. 1560),

Taverner Bible (A.D. 1551), Great Bible (A.D. 1539), Matthew

Bible (A.D. 1537), Coverdale (A.D. 1537), and Wycliffe (A.D.

1382). This translation comes from the Latin Vulgate, which

reads mundabitur, "cleansed," and is rooted in the earliest

Greek versions of the Old Testament--the Septuagint and

Theodotion, which read Katharisthesetai, "shall be


Most modern versions do not reflect this traditional

rendering. Because nitsdaq is derived from the verbal root

tsadaq, which covers a range of meanings, including "to make

right," "being right," "righteous," "justified," and

"vindicated," these translations render tsadaq as "restored

to its rightful state" (RSV), "properly restored" (NASB),

"reconsecrated" (NIV), and "restored" (TEV). OT poetic

parallelism gives evidence that tsadaq can be synonymous

with taher, "to be clean, pure" (Job 4:17; 17:9 NIV), with

zakah, "to be pure, clean" (Job 15:14; 25:4), and bor,

"cleanness" (Ps. 18:20). Nitsdaq, then, "includes within its

semantic range such meanings as `cleansing, vindicating,

justifying, setting right, restoring.' In whatever way one

renders the Hebrew term in a modern language, the

`cleansing' of the sanctuary includes actual cleansing as

well as activities of vindicating, justifying, and

restoring." (Hasel, "Little Horn,' the Heavenly Sanctuary

and the Time of the End: A Study of Daniel 8:9-14," in

Symposium on Daniel, p. 453). See also ibid., pp. 448-458;

Hasel, "The `Little Horn,' the Saints, and the Sanctuary in

Daniel 8," in Sanctuary and Atonement, pp. 203-208;

Niels-Erik Andreasen, "Translation of

Nisdaq/Katharisthesetai in Daniel 8:14," in Symposium on

Daniel, pp. 475-496; Maxwell, God Cares, vol. 1, p. 175;

"Christ and His High Priestly Ministry," Ministry, October

1980, pp. 34,35.

37.Some have interpreted the "2300 evenings-mornings" as

only 1150 literal days (e.g., TEV). But this is contrary to

Hebrew usage. Carl F. Keil, editor of the Keil and Delitzsch

commentary, wrote: "When the Hebrews wish to express

separately day and night, the component parts of a day of a

week, then the number of both is expressed. They say, e.g.,

40 days and 40 nights (Gen. 7:4, 12; Ex. 24:18; 1 Kings

19:8), and three days and three nights (Jonah 2:1; Matt.

12:40), but not 80 or six days-and-nights, when they wish to

speak of 40 or three full days. A Hebrew reader could not

possibly understand the period of time 2300 evening-mornings

of 2300 half days or 1150 whole days, because evening and

morning at the creation constituted not the half but the

whole day....We must therefore take the words as they are,

i.e., understand them of 2300 whole days" (C.F. Keil,

Biblical Commentary on the Book of Daniel, trans. M.G.

Easton, in C.F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary

on the Old Testament [Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1959],

vol. 25, pp. 303,304). For additional arguments, see Hasel,

"Sanctuary of Daniel 8," in Sanctuary and Atonement, p. 195;

Hasel, "The "`Little Horn,' the Heavenly Sanctuary and the

Time of the End," in Symposium on Daniel, pp. 430-433;

Siegfried J. Schwantes, "Ereb Boqer of Daniel 8:14

Re-Examined," in Symposium on Daniel, pp. 462-474); Maxwell,

God Cares, vol. 1, p. 174.

38.Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, vol. 2, p. 985;

vol. 3, pp. 252, 743; vol. 4, pp. 397, 404. For the

principle that a prophetic day represents a literal year,

see Shea, Selective Studies on Prophetic Interpretation,

pp. 56-93.

39.See, e.g., Hasel, "Sanctuary in Daniel 8," in Sanctuary

and Atonement, pp. 196,197; Shea, "Unity of Daniel," in

Symposium on Daniel, pp. 220-230.

40.Analysis of Hebrew writings such as the Mishnah reveals

that although chathak can mean "determine," the more common

meaning has "to do with the idea of cutting" (Shea, "The

relationship Between the Prophecies of Daniel 8 and

Daniel 9," in Sanctuary and Atonement, p. 242).

41.Gesenius, Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old

Testament Scripture, trans. Samuel P. Tregelles (Grand

Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, reprint ed., 1950), p. 314.

42.See Ferch, "Commencement Date for the Seventy Week

Prophecy," in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of

Prophecy, pp. 64-74.

43.From Daniel 8 it is clear that the 2300 days have to

cover a long span of years. The question is asked, "How long

will the vision be?" (Dan. 8:13). The term "vision" is the

same as used in verses 1,2. So when the question "How long

is the vision?" is raised by the heavenly angel, he is

expecting an answer that covers the entire vision from the

first animal symbol through the second animal symbol through

the horn symbol to the end of time as is indicated in verses

17 and 19 of Daniel 8. That the 2300 evenings and mornings

answers this question indicates rather clearly that they

must cover the period from the Medo-Persian empire to the

end of time, implying that they represent years.

44.Cf. Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist

Message and Mission, pp. 14,15; Froom, Prophetic Faith of

Our Fathers, vol. 4.

45.Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, vol. 4, p. 404.

46.See, e.g., Francis D. Nichol, The Midnight Cry

(Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1944).

47.See Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, vols. 1-4;

Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist Message

and Mission, pp. 16-20.

48.See Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist

Message and Mission, pp. 103-146; White, The Great

Controversy, pp. 423-432.

49.Froom, Movement of Destiny, p. 543.

50.Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," p. 34.

51.White, Christ's Object Lessons, p. 310.

52.Holbrook, "Light in the Shadows," p. 35.

53.The end of human probation is the time when repentance

is no longer possible. A person's probation can close in any

of three ways: (1) at death; (2) when the unpardonable sin

has been committed (Matt. 12:31,32; Luke 12:10); (3) when

probation is closed for all just before the Second Advent.

As long as Christ functions as high priest and mediator

between God and man, mercy is available. "No judgments

therefore can be inflicted without mercy till Christ's work

as priest has ended. But the seven last plagues are poured

out without mixture of mercy [Rev. 14:10; 15:1], hence they

are poured out after Christ has ceased His pleading, and

probation has ended" (U. Smith, in SDA Encyclopedia, rev.

ed., p. 1152).